USE We use the reported speech when: We want to tell someone else what someone said or asked We want to repeat what someone said or asked
FORM When we use the reported speech, we are usually talking about the past. So verbs usually change to the Past in the reported speech. Tom said he was feeling ill. We don’t change the verb tense if the introducing verb is in the Simple Present, Present Perfect or Future. He has just told me he can explain the fact. He will probably tell you he can explain the fact. Tom says he is feeling ill. Notice: when we use the verb tell we must mention who is told. She told me she was tired. I told John I was going home.
Reporting Verbs We can introduce the reported speech with the verbs say and tell. But there are many other verbs that we can use which are more suggestive than these two. Verb + Infinit.Verb + thatVerb + object + Infinit. Verb + ingVerb + prep. + ing agree refuse promise threaten complain suspect suggest advise warn ask beg suggestapologise (for) accuse ( of) accuse – acusarask – perguntarpromise – prometersuspect - suspeitar advise – aconselharbeg – implorarrefuse – recusarthreaten – ameaçar agree – concordarwarn – avisarsuggest – sugerircomplain – lamentar-se apologise – pedir desculpa
We turn the Imperative into an Infinitive and the sentence is usually introduced by one of the following verbs: tell, order, ask, warn advise, request. “Go away!”He told me to go away. “Don’t be afraid!”He told me not to be afraid. “Stand up!”She ordered us to stand up. The relative pronoun that can be used to introduce the reported sentence. He said that he was having a party next week. She told me that she had finished work a bit earlier. The teacher told us that our tests had good results.
When we report questions we use if, whether or a question word. We use the following introducing verbs: ask, enquire, wonder, want to know. “Are you enjoying yourself?” She asked me if I was enjoying myself. “ Did you break the glass?” She enquired whether I had broken the glass. “What do you see here?” He wanted to know what I saw there. “Where is my test?” He wondered where his test was. Notice: in the reported speech whether is equivalent to if the auxiliary do is not used in reported speech the subject is placed before the verb as in the affirmative
VERB CHANGES DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH Present Simple (he goes) Past simple (he went) Present Continuous ( he is going) Past Continuous (he was going) Past Simple ( he went) Past Perfect (he had gone) Present Perfect (he has gone) Future ( will / shall ) Conditional ( would / should )
DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH can could may might might could will / shall would / should would should ought to must must (regulations / prohibitions / probability) had to (present necessity or obligation) Modal Verbs
OTHER CHANGES DIRECT SPEECHREPORTED SPEECH Ihe / she we they you he / she / him / her mehim / her us them Personal Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns DIRECT SPEECHREPORTED SPEECH this that thesethose
DIRECT SPEECHREPORTED SPEECH myhis / her our their your his / her / my Possessives Place DIRECT SPEECHREPORTED SPEECH herethere
Time DIRECT SPEECHREPORTED SPEECH now then / at the time today that day / on… yesterday the day before / the previous day tomorrow the next / the following day this week that week last year the year before / the previous year an hour ago an hour before next summer the following summer
EXAMPLES “I go to the library once a week” He said he went to the library once a week. “They are going to meet Susan at four.” I said they were going to meet Susan at four. “I don’t understand anything!” She told us she didn’t understand anything. “I will have to write to your parents.” He told me he would have to write to my parents. “We went to the theatre yesterday evening.” They said that they had gone to the theatre the evening before. “you must buy it now or it will disappear from the market.” He said I must buy it then or it would disappear from the market.
- “I Have you got all your luggage?” He enquired if I had all my luggage. - “Which one did you choose?” She wanted to know which one I had chosen. - “Can you remember when you heard the story?” The police inquired if she could remember when she had heard the story. - “Sit down!” The teacher ordered the students to sit down. - “keep the change.” The customer told the waiter to keep the change. - “Be sure not to leave the door open.” They advised us not to leave the door open.
EXERCISES Report the following sentences. 1.“Someone is following me”I said… 2.“ I will write to your parents tomorrow.”The teacher told me… 3.“We haven’t seen her for ages.”They said… 4.“She’s the most beautiful girl I’ve ever seen.”Peter said… 5.“He didn’t come in time for tea last Sunday.”She told Mary… 6.“They tried to make him leave the office.”I said… 7.“Children should eat some vegetables.”They said… 8.“Sorry for breaking the vase.”He apologised … 9.“Why don’t we go to a disco?”John suggested… 10.“I’ll pick you up at five.”Peter promised me …
Report the following questions. 1.“Have you got all your luggage?”He asked me… 2.“ Do you like vegetables?”The teacher asked… 3.“Has anyone seen Angela?”She enquired… 4.“Where did Jim find this box?”Peter wanted to know… 5.“Is there someone sitting near here?”She asked… 6.“What shall I have for dinner?”I wondered… 7.“Why did he go away so early?”She wanted to know… 8.“What’s your address?”He asked … 9.“What time will it start?”John enquired… 10.“What are you doing next Friday?”Peter asked Jane …
ANSWER KEY Report the following sentences. 1.I said someone was following me. 2.The teacher told me she would write to my parents the day after. 3.They said they hadn’t seen her for ages. 4.Peter said she was the most beautiful girl he had ever seen. 5.She told Mary he hadn’t come in time for tea the Sunday before. 6.I said they had tried to make him leave the office. 7.They said that children should eat more vegetables. 8.He apologised for breaking the vase. 9.John suggested to go to a disco. 10.Peter promised me he would pick me up at five.
Report the following questions. 1.He asked me whether (if) I had got all my luggage. 2.The teacher asked if (whether) I liked vegetables. 3.She enquired if (whether) anyone had seen Angela. 4.Peter wanted to know where Jim had found that box. 5.She asked if (whether) there was someone sitting near there. 6.I wondered what I should have for dinner. 7.She wanted to know why he went away so early. 8.He asked what his / her address was. 9.John enquired what time it would start. 10.Peter asked Jane what she was doing the following Friday.