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The Rise of Absolute Monarchs (part I)

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1 The Rise of Absolute Monarchs (part I)
Spain, France, and Russia are dominated by a single ruler.

2 Learning Objectives Describe the Spanish Empire under Phillip II
List the events that led to the decline of the Spanish Empire Explain the origins of the absolute Monarchy Summarize the political progression in France that led to Louis VIV’s reign Analyze the effects of Louis IV’s policies and lifestyle Explain how Russian rulers began to build a stronger Russian state Characterize the differences between Russia and western Europe Summarize Peter the Great’s reforms and their impact on Russia


4 Absolutism Absolutism-Divine Right of Kings to rule every aspect of his empire’s affairs Causes: Decline of Feudalism Religious and territorial conflicts created fear and uncertainty Growth of armies provided power and need for taxes Heavy taxes led to more unrest and revolt National kingdoms with central authority Crisis leads to absolutism!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

5 The Spanish Empire Charles V(HRE) is grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain Ruled Spain, parts of Italy, and Austria Gave up his throne Has 2 sons, Phillip II and Ferdinand Philip II becomes King of Spain and other possessions Defender of Catholic Faith War with England and the Spanish Armada Empire that circled the globe, colonies supplied enormous wealth, standing army of 50k, guns that could fire 10 for every 1

6 The Decline of Spanish Power
Inflation and taxes- costly wars, expulsion of Jews and Moors (merchants), no middle class Making Spain’s enemies rich- imported most goods, Crown borrowed money for war, wealth sent away to pay debts Dutch Independence- taxation and harsh treatment of protestants led to revolt/independence in 1579

7 France Henry II of France dies in 1559
Between ,France plagued by religious civil war Henry of Navarre King 1598 1st of Bourbon Dynasty Becomes Catholic Edict of Nantes Assassinated 1610 Henry’s son Louis XIII crowned King

8 Cardinal Richelieu governed for Louis XIII. 2 goals for France
Increase the power of the Bourbon monarchy Make France the strongest state in Europe He believed France had 3 enemies: French Nobles, Huguenots, Hapsburg Army 30 Years War vs. Hapsburgs

9 Louis XIV “Sun King” ruled France
Took over during revolt by French nobles against Richelieu Moved to forever weaken the French nobility Excluded nobles from court Created intendants – government officials responsible to King Peasants tired of war/revolt An absolute monarch: a king with unlimited power. “L’estat c est moi”-I am the state

10 Louis builds Versailles
Louis hated Paris- built new palace It was a royal residence and center for the French govt. Was a visual display of Louis’s absolute power. Hall of Mirrors

11 Not so Sunny after all… Extravagant lifestyle depletes French treasury
Revokes Edict of Nantes Fights disastrous wars to expand French territory France and French people broke at end of Louis’ reign 20 million people 4x England, very wealthy, highly trained army

12 Rise of Russia Ivan III “The Great” Russian noble who united Russia
Conquered large amounts of territory Liberated Russia from Mongols Centralized government Increased power of central government


14 Ivan the Terrible Crowned himself Czar (Caesar) at 16 y/o
Constantly battled with Russian nobles (Boyars) Ruled by terror- used secret police to execute anyone considered to be a traitor The Time of Troubles- after Ivan’s son dies without heir, Boyars struggle for power

15 Peter the Great changed Russia
The Romanov dynasty begins with Michael. He is elected Czar. Lasted from Peter the Great comes to the throne in 1682. His goal is to modernize Russia to be like Western Europe. Embarked on Grand Embassy” Russia had been cut off from Europe by Mongols! Had looked to Constantinople not Europe for relilgion and leadership, seen as visiting the great heritics, 6’4’

16 Peter’s Western Reforms
Introduced potatoes Started 1st newspaper Lifted restrictions on women Made nobles dress in Western fashion Opened schools for navigation and sciences Forced scholars to travel to other countries to study


18 Peter expands Russia’s empire.
Peter is an absolute Monarch Makes himself head of the Russian Orthodox Church. Creates a large professional army. Peter fights for a warm water port to end Russia’s isolation. Port in the Black and Baltic Sea. Went to war with the Turks and Swedes. Peter builds a new capital. St. Petersburg is built on a swamp.

19 The Rise of Absolute Monarchs (part II)
England bucks the trend: Parliament limits the Monarchy and Central European Nations Clash

20 Learning Objectives Identify conflicts between English Rulers and Parliament Explain the causes and results of the English Civil War Describe the Restoration and the Glorious Revolution Analyze the changes made under William and Mary and the impact of the English Bill of Rights

21 England: a Constitutional Monarchy
English Monarchs limited by a Constitution- written rules/procedures of a government Constitution provided for a Parliament- body of elected representatives that makes law for a nation House of Commons and House of Lords Parliament able to control Monarch through power of the purse Elizabeth I leaves England with large amount of debt. Disagreements over $ lead to constant conflicts between Monarchs and Parliament

22 England: a constitutional monarchy
House of Tudor Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI “Bloody” Mary Elizabeth “Virgin” House of Stuart James Charles CIVIL WAR Charles II James II William and Mary Ann

23 Tudors Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI “Bloody” Mary Elizabeth I

24 Stuart Dynasty in England
James I James 6th of Scotland becomes James 1 of England Catholicism back in England Divine Right of Kings King James Bible Gunpowder Plot


26 The Stuart Dynasty

27 Charles I Charles becomes king with James’ death
Parliament makes Charles sign Petition of Right No prison without due cause No taxation without Parliament’s approval No quartering soldiers in private homes No martial law during peacetime Charles dissolves Parliament for 10 years, imposes fees on subjects for money Law higher than king!

28 The English Civil War (1642-1649)
O M W E L VS Puritans very powerful in Parliament Parliament passes laws to limit Kings power Charles orders arrest of Parliament‘s leaders/London riots Charles flees to North and creates army (Cavaliers) Those opposed to King formed army (Roundheads) Cromwell (Puritan) as Lord Protector

29 English Civil War (cont.)
Puritan general Oliver Cromwell turns tide in favor of Puritans Capture King Charles in 1647 In 1649 Put the king in trial for treason

30 Oliver Cromwell -Lord Protector
Cromwell abolishes the Monarchy and the House of Lords Established a commonwealth Eventually becomes Military dictator Ruled according to Puritan beliefs Made laws outlawing dancing, theater, sporting events Conquers Ireland

31 The Restoration

32 King Charles II [r. 1660-1685] Had charm, poise, & political skills.
Restored the theaters and reopened the pubs and brothels closed during the Restoration. Favored religious toleration. Had secret Catholic sympathies. Realized that he could not repeat the mistakes his father had made.

33 The Glorious Revolution
James II Strict Catholic Appointed Catholics to public office Dissolved Parliament Had a son Fear of a Catholic line Opponents plotted to overthrow James II Mary- James’ older daughter and husband William of Orange; prince of the Netherlands William and Mary’s army march on London, James flees to France The Glorious Revolution

34 William and Mary Heroes of Protestants Limits power of Monarchy
1st Prime Minister Signed the English Bill of Rights

35 English Bill of Rights [1689]
It settled all of the major issues between King & Parliament. It served as a model for the U. S. Bill of Rights. It also formed a base for the steady expansion of civil liberties in the 18c and early 19c in England.

36 English Bill of Rights [1689]
Main provisions: The King could not suspend the operation of laws. The King could not interfere with the ordinary course of justice. No taxes levied or standard army maintained in peacetime without Parliament’s consent. Freedom of speech in Parliament. Sessions of Parliament would be held frequently. Subjects had the right of bail, petition, and freedom from excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment. The monarch must be a Protestant. Freedom from arbitrary arrest. Censorship of the press was dropped. Religious toleration.

37 The Rise of Absolute Monarchs (part III)
Central European Nations Clash

38 Prussia and Austria Power Vacuum Austria regains HRE
Poland, Ottomans, HRE Austria regains HRE Charles VI creates the Pragmatic Sanction to secure his daughter a peaceful reign. Maria Theresa succeeded her father as the Hapsburg monarch. War of Austrian Succession

39 Hohenzollerns ruled Prussia
Prussia grows out of the small state of Brandenburg. Capital is Berlin Fredrick William, the Great Elector, builds a strong army and made alliances. Devastated by 30 yrs.’ War

40 Fredrick I creates Prussia Fredrick William I & the junkers, ruthless
Fredrick II (the Great) continually build the strongest and largest army in Europe. Tried to flee Enlightened monarch Their greatest enemy became the Hapsburgs.

41 Central Europe collides
Weakness of HRE Treaty of Westphalia Balance of Power

42 The Balance of Power game.
In order to ensure that no one country becomes too strong, countries shift alliances. 30 Years war and the Treaty of Westphalia The War of Austrian Succession Great Britain, Russia, Netherlands, Austria vs. Prussia and France Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle The Seven Years’ War (Fr. & Ind. War) Great Britain, Prussia vs. Austria, France, Russia Peace of Paris ends the war. Teams change sides to prevent one side from becoming too strong.

43 Quiz What does Absolute power mean? Who was known as the “Sun King”?
Who intermarried with the Slavs of Russia? What family ruled Prussia? By what other name was the Seven Years’ War known as?

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