Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Absolute Monarchs (part I)"— Presentation transcript:
1The Rise of Absolute Monarchs (part I) Spain, France, and Russia are dominated by a single ruler.
2Learning Objectives Describe the Spanish Empire under Phillip II List the events that led to the decline of the Spanish EmpireExplain the origins of the absolute MonarchySummarize the political progression in France that led to Louis VIV’s reignAnalyze the effects of Louis IV’s policies and lifestyleExplain how Russian rulers began to build a stronger Russian stateCharacterize the differences between Russia and western EuropeSummarize Peter the Great’s reforms and their impact on Russia
4AbsolutismAbsolutism-Divine Right of Kings to rule every aspect of his empire’s affairsCauses:Decline of FeudalismReligious and territorial conflicts created fear and uncertaintyGrowth of armies provided power and need for taxesHeavy taxes led to more unrest and revoltNational kingdoms with central authorityCrisis leads to absolutism!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
5The Spanish EmpireCharles V(HRE) is grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella of SpainRuled Spain, parts of Italy, and AustriaGave up his throneHas 2 sons, Phillip II and FerdinandPhilip II becomes King of Spain and other possessionsDefender of Catholic FaithWar with England and the Spanish ArmadaEmpire that circled the globe, colonies supplied enormous wealth, standing army of 50k, guns that could fire 10 for every 1
6The Decline of Spanish Power Inflation and taxes- costly wars, expulsion of Jews and Moors (merchants), no middle classMaking Spain’s enemies rich- imported most goods, Crown borrowed money for war, wealth sent away to pay debtsDutch Independence- taxation and harsh treatment of protestants led to revolt/independence in 1579
7France Henry II of France dies in 1559 Between ,France plagued by religious civil warHenry of NavarreKing 15981st of Bourbon DynastyBecomes CatholicEdict of NantesAssassinated 1610Henry’s son Louis XIII crowned King
8Cardinal Richelieu governed for Louis XIII. 2 goals for France Increase the power of the Bourbon monarchyMake France the strongest state in EuropeHe believed France had 3 enemies: French Nobles, Huguenots, Hapsburg Army30 Years War vs. Hapsburgs
9Louis XIV “Sun King” ruled France Took over during revolt by French nobles against RichelieuMoved to forever weaken the French nobilityExcluded nobles from courtCreated intendants – government officials responsible to KingPeasants tired of war/revoltAn absolute monarch: a king with unlimited power.“L’estat c est moi”-I am the state
10Louis builds Versailles Louis hated Paris- built new palaceIt was a royal residence and center for the French govt.Was a visual display of Louis’s absolute power.Hall of Mirrors
11Not so Sunny after all… Extravagant lifestyle depletes French treasury Revokes Edict of NantesFights disastrous wars to expand French territoryFrance and French people broke at end of Louis’ reign20 million people 4x England, very wealthy, highly trained army
12Rise of Russia Ivan III “The Great” Russian noble who united Russia Conquered large amounts of territoryLiberated Russia from MongolsCentralized governmentIncreased power of central government
14Ivan the Terrible Crowned himself Czar (Caesar) at 16 y/o Constantly battled with Russian nobles (Boyars)Ruled by terror- used secret police to execute anyone considered to be a traitorThe Time of Troubles- after Ivan’s son dies without heir, Boyars struggle for power
15Peter the Great changed Russia The Romanov dynasty begins with Michael. He is elected Czar.Lasted fromPeter the Great comes to the throne in 1682.His goal is to modernize Russia to be like Western Europe.Embarked on Grand Embassy”Russia had been cut off from Europe by Mongols! Had looked to Constantinople not Europe for relilgion and leadership, seen as visiting the great heritics, 6’4’
16Peter’s Western Reforms Introduced potatoesStarted 1st newspaperLifted restrictions on womenMade nobles dress in Western fashionOpened schools for navigation and sciencesForced scholars to travel to other countries to study
18Peter expands Russia’s empire. Peter is an absolute MonarchMakes himself head of the Russian Orthodox Church.Creates a large professional army.Peter fights for a warm water port to end Russia’s isolation.Port in the Black and Baltic Sea.Went to war with the Turks and Swedes.Peter builds a new capital.St. Petersburg is built on a swamp.
19The Rise of Absolute Monarchs (part II) England bucks the trend: Parliament limits the Monarchy and Central European Nations Clash
20Learning ObjectivesIdentify conflicts between English Rulers and ParliamentExplain the causes and results of the English Civil WarDescribe the Restoration and the Glorious RevolutionAnalyze the changes made under William and Mary and the impact of the English Bill of Rights
21England: a Constitutional Monarchy English Monarchs limited by a Constitution- written rules/procedures of a governmentConstitution provided for a Parliament- body of elected representatives that makes law for a nationHouse of Commons and House of LordsParliament able to control Monarch through power of the purseElizabeth I leaves England with large amount of debt. Disagreements over $ lead to constant conflicts between Monarchs and Parliament
22England: a constitutional monarchy House of TudorHenry VIIHenry VIIIEdward VI“Bloody” MaryElizabeth “Virgin”House of StuartJamesCharlesCIVIL WARCharles IIJames IIWilliam and MaryAnn
23TudorsHenry VIIHenry VIIIEdward VI“Bloody” MaryElizabeth I
24Stuart Dynasty in England James IJames 6th of Scotland becomes James 1 of EnglandCatholicism back in EnglandDivine Right of KingsKing James BibleGunpowder Plot
27Charles I Charles becomes king with James’ death Parliament makes Charles sign Petition of RightNo prison without due causeNo taxation without Parliament’s approvalNo quartering soldiers in private homesNo martial law during peacetimeCharles dissolves Parliament for 10 years, imposes fees on subjects for moneyLaw higher than king!
28The English Civil War (1642-1649) OMWELVSPuritans very powerful in ParliamentParliament passes laws to limit Kings powerCharles orders arrest of Parliament‘s leaders/London riotsCharles flees to North and creates army (Cavaliers)Those opposed to King formed army (Roundheads)Cromwell (Puritan) as Lord Protector
29English Civil War (cont.) Puritan general Oliver Cromwell turns tide in favor of PuritansCapture King Charles in 1647In 1649 Put the king in trial for treason
30Oliver Cromwell -Lord Protector Cromwell abolishes the Monarchy and the House of LordsEstablished a commonwealthEventually becomes Military dictatorRuled according to Puritan beliefsMade laws outlawing dancing, theater, sporting eventsConquers Ireland
32King Charles II [r. 1660-1685] Had charm, poise, & political skills. Restored the theaters and reopened the pubs and brothels closed during the Restoration.Favored religious toleration.Had secret Catholic sympathies.Realized that he could not repeat the mistakes his father had made.
33The Glorious Revolution James IIStrict CatholicAppointed Catholics to public officeDissolved ParliamentHad a sonFear of a Catholic lineOpponents plotted to overthrow James IIMary- James’ older daughter and husband William of Orange; prince of the NetherlandsWilliam and Mary’s army march on London, James flees to FranceThe Glorious Revolution
34William and Mary Heroes of Protestants Limits power of Monarchy 1st Prime MinisterSigned the English Bill of Rights
35English Bill of Rights  It settled all of the major issues between King & Parliament.It served as a model for the U. S. Bill of Rights.It also formed a base for the steady expansion of civil liberties in the 18c and early 19c in England.
36English Bill of Rights  Main provisions:The King could not suspend the operation of laws.The King could not interfere with the ordinary course of justice.No taxes levied or standard army maintained in peacetime without Parliament’s consent.Freedom of speech in Parliament.Sessions of Parliament would be held frequently.Subjects had the right of bail, petition, and freedom from excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment.The monarch must be a Protestant.Freedom from arbitrary arrest.Censorship of the press was dropped.Religious toleration.
37The Rise of Absolute Monarchs (part III) Central European Nations Clash
38Prussia and Austria Power Vacuum Austria regains HRE Poland, Ottomans, HREAustria regains HRECharles VI creates the Pragmatic Sanction to secure his daughter a peaceful reign.Maria Theresa succeeded her father as the Hapsburg monarch.War of Austrian Succession
39Hohenzollerns ruled Prussia Prussia grows out of the small state of Brandenburg.Capital is BerlinFredrick William, the Great Elector, builds a strong army and made alliances.Devastated by 30 yrs.’ War
40Fredrick I creates Prussia Fredrick William I & the junkers, ruthless Fredrick II (the Great) continually build the strongest and largest army in Europe.Tried to fleeEnlightened monarchTheir greatest enemy became the Hapsburgs.
41Central Europe collides Weakness of HRETreaty of WestphaliaBalance of Power
42The Balance of Power game. In order to ensure that no one country becomes too strong, countries shift alliances.30 Years war and the Treaty of WestphaliaThe War of Austrian SuccessionGreat Britain, Russia, Netherlands, Austria vs. Prussia and FranceTreaty of Aix-la-ChapelleThe Seven Years’ War (Fr. & Ind. War)Great Britain, Prussia vs. Austria, France, RussiaPeace of Paris ends the war.Teams change sides to prevent one side from becoming too strong.
43Quiz What does Absolute power mean? Who was known as the “Sun King”? Who intermarried with the Slavs of Russia?What family ruled Prussia?By what other name was the Seven Years’ War known as?