Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Absolute Monarchs (part I) Spain, France, and Russia are dominated by a single ruler."— Presentation transcript:
The Rise of Absolute Monarchs (part I) Spain, France, and Russia are dominated by a single ruler.
Learning Objectives Describe the Spanish Empire under Phillip II List the events that led to the decline of the Spanish Empire Explain the origins of the absolute Monarchy Summarize the political progression in France that led to Louis VIV’s reign Analyze the effects of Louis IV’s policies and lifestyle Explain how Russian rulers began to build a stronger Russian state Characterize the differences between Russia and western Europe Summarize Peter the Great’s reforms and their impact on Russia
Absolutism Absolutism-Divine Right of Kings to rule every aspect of his empire’s affairs Causes: –Decline of Feudalism –Religious and territorial conflicts created fear and uncertainty –Growth of armies provided power and need for taxes –Heavy taxes led to more unrest and revolt –National kingdoms with central authority Crisis leads to absolutism!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
The Spanish Empire Charles V(HRE) is grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain –Ruled Spain, parts of Italy, and Austria –Gave up his throne –Has 2 sons, Phillip II and Ferdinand Philip II becomes King of Spain and other possessions –Defender of Catholic Faith –War with England and the Spanish Armada
The Decline of Spanish Power Inflation and taxes- costly wars, expulsion of Jews and Moors (merchants), no middle class Making Spain’s enemies rich- imported most goods, Crown borrowed money for war, wealth sent away to pay debts Dutch Independence- taxation and harsh treatment of protestants led to revolt/independence in 1579
France Henry II of France dies in 1559 Between 1559-1598,France plagued by religious civil war Henry of Navarre –King 1598 –1 st of Bourbon Dynasty –Becomes Catholic –Edict of Nantes –Assassinated 1610 Henry’s son Louis XIII crowned King
Cardinal Richelieu governed for Louis XIII. 2 goals for France –Increase the power of the Bourbon monarchy –Make France the strongest state in Europe He believed France had 3 enemies: French Nobles, Huguenots, Hapsburg Army 30 Years War vs. Hapsburgs
Louis XIV “Sun King” ruled France TTTTook over during revolt by French nobles against Richelieu –M–M–M–Moved to forever weaken the French nobility EEEExcluded nobles from court CCCCreated intendants – government officials responsible to King –P–P–P–Peasants tired of war/revolt AAAAn absolute monarch: a king with unlimited power. “L’estat c est moi”-I am the state
Louis builds Versailles LLLLouis hated Paris- built new palace IIIIt was a royal residence and center for the French govt. WWWWas a visual display of Louis’s absolute power. –H–Hall of Mirrors
Not so Sunny after all… Extravagant lifestyle depletes French treasury Revokes Edict of Nantes Fights disastrous wars to expand French territory France and French people broke at end of Louis’ reign
Rise of Russia Ivan III “The Great” –Russian noble who united Russia –Conquered large amounts of territory –Liberated Russia from Mongols –Centralized government –Increased power of central government
Ivan the Terrible Crowned himself Czar (Caesar) at 16 y/o Constantly battled with Russian nobles (Boyars) Ruled by terror- used secret police to execute anyone considered to be a traitor The Time of Troubles- after Ivan’s son dies without heir, Boyars struggle for power
Peter the Great changed Russia The Romanov dynasty begins with Michael. He is elected Czar. –Lasted from 1613-1917. Peter the Great comes to the throne in 1682. –His goal is to modernize Russia to be like Western Europe. Embarked on Grand Embassy”
Peter’s Western Reforms Introduced potatoes Started 1 st newspaper Lifted restrictions on women Made nobles dress in Western fashion Opened schools for navigation and sciences Forced scholars to travel to other countries to study
Peter expands Russia’s empire. Peter is an absolute Monarch –Makes himself head of the Russian Orthodox Church. –Creates a large professional army. Peter fights for a warm water port to end Russia’s isolation. –Port in the Black and Baltic Sea. –Went to war with the Turks and Swedes. Peter builds a new capital. –St. Petersburg is built on a swamp.
The Rise of Absolute Monarchs (part II) England bucks the trend: Parliament limits the Monarchy and Central European Nations Clash
Learning Objectives Identify conflicts between English Rulers and Parliament Explain the causes and results of the English Civil War Describe the Restoration and the Glorious Revolution Analyze the changes made under William and Mary and the impact of the English Bill of Rights
England: a Constitutional Monarchy English Monarchs limited by a Constitution- written rules/procedures of a government Constitution provided for a Parliament- body of elected representatives that makes law for a nation –House of Commons and House of Lords Parliament able to control Monarch through power of the purse
England: a constitutional monarchy House of Tudor –Henry VII –Henry VIII –Edward VI –“Bloody” Mary –Elizabeth “Virgin” House of Stuart –James –Charles –CIVIL WAR –Charles II –James II –William and Mary –Ann
Tudors Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI “Bloody” Mary Elizabeth I
Stuart Dynasty in England James I –James 6 th of Scotland becomes James 1 of England Catholicism back in England Divine Right of Kings King James Bible Gunpowder Plot
Charles I Charles becomes king with James’ death Parliament makes Charles sign Petition of Right –No prison without due cause –No taxation without Parliament’s approval –No quartering soldiers in private homes –No martial law during peacetime Charles dissolves Parliament for 10 years, imposes fees on subjects for money
The English Civil War (1642-1649) Puritans very powerful in Parliament Parliament passes laws to limit Kings power Charles orders arrest of Parliament‘s leaders/London riots Charles flees to North and creates army (Cavaliers) Those opposed to King formed army (Roundheads) Cromwell (Puritan) as Lord Protector CHARLESCROMWELL VS
English Civil War (cont.) Puritan general Oliver Cromwell turns tide in favor of Puritans Capture King Charles in 1647 In 1649 Put the king in trial for treason
Oliver Cromwell -Lord Protector Cromwell abolishes the Monarchy and the House of Lords Established a commonwealth Eventually becomes Military dictator Ruled according to Puritan beliefs –Made laws outlawing dancing, theater, sporting events
King Charles II [ r. 1660-1685 ] Had charm, poise, & political skills. Restored the theaters and reopened the pubs and brothels closed during the Restoration. Favored religious toleration. Had secret Catholic sympathies. Realized that he could not repeat the mistakes his father had made.
The Glorious Revolution James II –Strict Catholic Appointed Catholics to public office –Dissolved Parliament –Had a son Fear of a Catholic line –Opponents plotted to overthrow James II Mary- James’ older daughter and husband William of Orange; prince of the Netherlands –William and Mary’s army march on London, James flees to France
William and Mary Heroes of Protestants Limits power of Monarchy 1 st Prime Minister Signed the English Bill of Rights
English Bill of Rights [ 1689 ] It settled all of the major issues between King & Parliament. It served as a model for the U. S. Bill of Rights. It also formed a base for the steady expansion of civil liberties in the 18 c and early 19 c in England.
English Bill of Rights [ 1689 ] Main provisions: 1. The King could not suspend the operation of laws. 2. The King could not interfere with the ordinary course of justice. 3. No taxes levied or standard army maintained in peacetime without Parliament’s consent. 4. Freedom of speech in Parliament. 5. Sessions of Parliament would be held frequently. 6. Subjects had the right of bail, petition, and freedom from excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment. 7. The monarch must be a Protestant. 8. Freedom from arbitrary arrest. 9. Censorship of the press was dropped. 10. Religious toleration.
The Rise of Absolute Monarchs (part III) Central European Nations Clash
Prussia and Austria Power Vacuum –Poland, Ottomans, HRE Austria regains HRE Charles VI creates the Pragmatic Sanction to secure his daughter a peaceful reign. Maria Theresa succeeded her father as the Hapsburg monarch. –War of Austrian Succession
Hohenzollerns ruled Prussia PPPPrussia grows out of the small state of Brandenburg. –C–Capital is Berlin FFFFredrick William, the Great Elector, builds a strong army and made alliances. –D–Devastated by 30 yrs.’ War
Fredrick I creates Prussia Fredrick William I & the junkers, ruthless Fredrick II (the Great) continually build the strongest and largest army in Europe. –Tried to flee –Enlightened monarch Their greatest enemy became the Hapsburgs.
Central Europe collides Weakness of HRE Treaty of Westphalia Balance of Power
The Balance of Power game. In order to ensure that no one country becomes too strong, countries shift alliances. 30 Years war and the Treaty of Westphalia The War of Austrian Succession –Great Britain, Russia, Netherlands, Austria vs. Prussia and France –Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle The Seven Years’ War (Fr. & Ind. War) –Great Britain, Prussia vs. Austria, France, Russia –Peace of Paris ends the war. –Teams change sides to prevent one side from becoming too strong.
Quiz 1. What does Absolute power mean? 2. Who was known as the “Sun King”? 3. Who intermarried with the Slavs of Russia? 4. What family ruled Prussia? 5. By what other name was the Seven Years’ War known as?