Presentation on theme: "Decreasing Behavior. Extinction n occurs when you withhold or remove the reinforcer maintaining a behavior n is a procedure that gradually reduces the."— Presentation transcript:
n occurs when you withhold or remove the reinforcer maintaining a behavior n is a procedure that gradually reduces the frequency and/or intensity of a target behavior by withholding reinforcement from previously reinforced behavior n extinction can be used to eliminate the connection between the behavior and the positive consequences that follow it
Extinction (cont) n Extinction REQUIRES complete control of the reinforcer – consistency is the most important factor related to the efficacy of extinction – in most cases, extinction is only effective in reducing behaviors that are motivated by attention from the teacher/parent/caregiver n Other factors affecting resistance to extinction – the schedule of reinforcement that previously maintained the behavior – the amount of strength of the previous reinforcer – the length of time of the previous behavior-reinforcer association – the frequency of use of extinction with the student: more the better
Extinction (cont) n Advantages – may be effective without the use of physical or verbal consequences – no use of aversive consequences/punishment – effects tend to be long lasting – when combined with DRI or DRA very effective n Disadvantages – temporary increase in behavior expected at start – child frustration – difficult to chose appropriate behavior to use extinction with – must have consistency between and among caregivers and peers (environment)
Time-Out from Positive Reinforcement
Time-Out n the removal of a child from an apparently reinforcing setting to a presumable nonreinforcing setting for a specified and limited period of time n Types of time-out: – nonexclusion è time-out ribbon è planned ignoring è removal of specific reinforcers è observational – exclusion è seclusion è isolation
Isolation Time-Out: Guidelines n Duration of time-out – 2-minutes – 4-5 maximum – never more than 10 n Caregiver must be able to clearly observe child n Child should not be able to see caregiver n Expectations for child's behavior should be clear n Set timer for amount of time child is to spend in time-out Setting should not be reinforcing - remember the purpose of time-out is to remove the child from reinforcement n Validate the reinforcement value of the "normal" environment
Time-Out Log Child _________________________________________ Supervisor ____________________________________ Date _____________ Time Type Behavior before Behavior during Behavior after Enters Leaves time-out time-out time-out 10:0510:10Verbal interruptionsQuite, watched classWaited for turn Tommy Jones Ms. Smith Friday, ign Type of TO: obs = observational ign = ignore sec = seclusion iso = isolation
Advantages of Time Out n Easy to integrate with positive reinforcement program to increase appropriate behavior n Effects of T.O. process usually rapid n Nonexclusion T.O. may be employed without removing the child n T.O. viable alternative to more intrusive behavior reduction strategies
Potential Disadvantages of T.O. n T.O. may be abused - duration & frequency n Caregivers may use it as a "break" n Frequent T.O. removes the child from the educational environment n Child may exhibit other inappropriate behaviors when caregivers remove positive reinforcement
n the addition of an aversive stimulus as a consequence of a behavior - may be physical or psychological n the subtraction of something the child perceives as desirable - response cost n punishment by deprivation or response-cost is generally considered less harmful to the child and more effective intervention than the addition of physical or psychological aversive stimuli n the short-term effectiveness of punishment for decreasing behaviors is not disputed - punishment is effective for obtaining short-term goals
Punishment n Reasons for avoiding the use of punishment: – It does not eliminate but merely suppresses the behavior – It does not provide a model for the desired acceptable behavior – Aggression on the part of the practitioner presents an undesirable model – The emotional results of punishment may be fear, tension, stress, or withdrawal – The child's resulting frustration may result in further deviation n Punishment is associated with the punisher rather than with the unacceptable behavior
Punishment n Commonly used punishments – denying participation in scheduled activities – denying snacks – physical punishment – verbal punishment – having the child stand apart from the o thers – having the child wear a sign n If punishment is to be used: guidelines to use – specify and communicate the punishable behavior to the child by means of classroom rules for behavior – post the rules where the children can see them; review them frequently – provide models of acceptable behavior – apply the punishment consistently, not whimsically – be fair in using the punishment – impose the punishment impersonally - do not punish when you are angry or otherwise out of self-control
Punishment n Loss of Privileges - response cost n Guidelines – Be sure the child understands the relationship between the target behavior and the privilege to be lost – Be sure the child knows the punishable behavior and the consequence of exhibiting it – When possible use natural or logical consequences – Apply the loss of privilege interventions fairly – Avoid warning, nagging, or threatening – Do not debate the punishable behaviors, the rules, or the punishment once these have been established – Do not become emotionally involved, Don't feel guilty when the child loses a privilege – Be consistent – Reinforce appropriate behavior; do not emphasize inappropriate behaviors only
Punishment n Reprimands - to be scolded, "yelled at", "bawled out", or otherwise verbally chastised for exhibiting an inappropriate target behavior n Guidelines – Be specific. Tell the child exactly what inappropriate behavior is being reprimanded – Reprimand the behavior, do not denigrate the child – Reprimand immediately – Be firm in voice and physical demeanor – If either the child or others may be harmed by the behavior, remove the child – Encourage the child to behave appropriately and include a statement of the appropriate behavior in the reprimand – Be calm – When it is over, it is over. – Always observe the child's reaction to the reprimand to determine if it is aversive.
Restitution and Overcorrection
Restitution & Restitutional Overcorrection n Restitution – a procedure that requires and individual to return the environment to its state prior to a behavior that changed the environment n Restitutional Overcorrection – the child is not only required to perform restitution but to "restore the situation to a state vastly improved from that which existed before the disruption."
If the Child: RestitutionRestitution + Overcorrection damages car pay for repair pay for new car throws thingspick up items thrownpick up all items on floor makes a mess duringclean play areaclean entire room play or other activity drops food on floorsweep up foodsweep entire floor writes on wallwash the writingwash entire wall damages schoolrepair property torepair property damaged propertycondition prior toand perform additional behaviorservice to school property
the tendency for an act or stimulus to become less attractive to the subject upon repetition n the decreasing or elimination of an inappropriate behavior as a result of continued and increased n presentation of the S D n reinforcement of the behavior n Must be implemented with a continuous or fixed reinforcement schedule n very helpful tool for decreasing behaviors that "appear" to be appropriate – pencil sharpening – putting paper in the waste basket – getting drinks of water – etc.