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Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter 15: Punishment.

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Presentation on theme: "Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter 15: Punishment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter 15: Punishment by Removal of a Stimulus

2 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Definition of Punishment by Removal of a Stimulus Stimulus removed Contingent upon a response That decreases the future probability of that response The future decrease in the response is a critical feature in defining punishment

3 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Punishment by contingent removal of a stimulus Future Frequency Stimulus Change Stimulus Applied Stimulus Removed Behavior is reduced Type I Positive Punishment Type II Negative Punishment

4 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Example S D Adult says, “Let’s open our books to page 12. Each of you should read the first paragraph to your buddy.” Response Child pokes his buddy S R- Adult places child in time out (peer attention is removed) Poking a buddy occurs less often in the future when the teacher gives a classroom instruction and peer buddies are available. EO Child is participating in classroom buddy activities, where attention from peers (a positive reinforcer) is available.

5 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Time-out from Positive Reinforcement The withdrawal of the opportunity to earn positive reinforcement, or The loss of access to reinforcers for a specified period of time Contingent upon the occurrence of a target behavior If the effect of these is to decrease the future probability of the behavior, then this procedure has functioned as a punisher for the behavior

6 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Important Aspects of Time-out The discrepancy between “time-out” and “time-in” must be great The loss of access to reinforcement must be contingent upon a target behavior There is a resultant decrease in the future probability of the behavior (otherwise it is likely not time out from reinforcement because the EO that preceded the behavior was not a reinforcing, “time-in” environment)

7 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Time-out Procedures Nonexclusion –Planned ignoring –Withdrawal of a specific positive reinforcer –Contingent observation –Time-out ribbon Exclusion –Time-out room –Partition time-out –Hallway time-out

8 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Nonexclusion Time-out The individual is not completely removed physically from time-in setting However, position within the environment may shift

9 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Planned Ignoring Social reinforcers--usually attention, physical contact, or verbal interaction--are removed for a brief period –Systematically looking away from the student –Remaining quiet –Refraining from any interaction for a specified period of time Planned ignoring is –Nonintrusive –Quick –Convenient

10 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Withdrawal of a Specific Positive Reinforcer Some sort of positive reinforcer that is already present is removed for a brief period of time contingent upon a target behavior, and then reinstated Can be implemented as a group contingency

11 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Contingent Observation The individual is repositioned within the existing setting –Observation of ongoing activities is still possible –Access to reinforcement is lost, however

12 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Time-out Ribbon A colored band is placed on the child’s wrist and is discriminative for receiving reinforcement –Child earns reinforcers when it is on Contingent upon a target behavior, the colored band is removed for a specified period of time –All social interaction is terminated –Other reinforcers are also withheld

13 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Exclusion Time-out The individual is removed, physically, from the environment for a specified period of time Contingent upon the occurrence of a target behavior –Time-out room –Separated by partition –Placed in hallway

14 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Time-out Room A confined space outside the individual’s normal educational or treatment environment It is devoid of any positive reinforcers; also minimally furnished It is safe (adequate heat and light), secure (but not locked) and temporary Near time-in setting

15 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Advantages of Time-out Rooms Opportunity to acquire reinforcement is eliminated or reduced substantially After a few exposures, students learn to discriminate it from other rooms (making the time-in setting more desirable) Decreases risk of student hurting other students

16 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Disadvantages of Time-out Rooms Must escort students to time-out May result in resistance, emotional outbursts Access to ongoing instruction is prohibited Individuals may engage in behaviors (e.g., self-injury) that should be stopped but go undetected Negative public perception

17 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Partition Time-out Individual remains in time-in setting, but his view within the setting is restricted by a partition, wall, or cubicle Advantage: Keeps individual in instructional setting Disadvantages: Individual still may be able to obtain covert reinforcement, negative public perception

18 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Hallway Time-out Individual sits in hallway outside of classroom or treatment area Not highly recommended strategy –Individual can obtain reinforcement from a multitude of sources –Child can escape easily

19 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Desirable Aspects of Time-out Ease of application (especially nonexclusion time-out) Acceptability (especially nonexclusion) Rapid suppression of problem behavior Easily combined with other procedures, such as differential reinforcement

20 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Effective Use of Time Out Reinforce and enrich the time-in environment –Utilize differential reinforcement to reinforce alternative and incompatible behaviors Clearly define the behaviors leading to time-out –All parties (including the target individual) should have explicit, observable definitions of the problem behavior

21 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Effective Use of Time Out Define procedures for the duration of time-out –Initial duration should be short –Longer than 15 minutes ineffective Define exit criteria –If individual is misbehaving when time-out ends, it should be continued until inappropriate behavior ceases

22 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Effective Use of Time Out Exclusion vs. nonexclusion time-out –Consider institutional policies that may prevent exclusion time-out –Physical factors (i.e., lack of appropriate space) may prevent exclusion time-out Explain time-out rules to the individual –Target behaviors, duration, exit criteria Obtain permission –Administrative approvals –Parental approvals

23 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Effective Use of Time Out Apply consistently Evaluate effectiveness –Target behavior should decrease –Track frequency and duration of time outs –Also track collateral behaviors for side effects Consider other options Consider legal and ethical issues

24 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Response Cost Loss of a specific amount of reinforcement Contingent upon a target behavior Reduces the future probability of the target behavior Examples: reclaiming awards or stickers, “fines” (e.g., loss of tokens or money)

25 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Example S D Adult says, “Let’s open our books to page 12. Each of you should read the first paragraph to your buddy.” Response Child pokes his buddy S R- 5 minutes of the recess time is removed Poking a buddy occurs less often in the future when the teacher gives a classroom instruction and recess is available. EO Child has 15 minutes of recess on schedule every morning.

26 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Desirable aspects of Response Cost Produces rapid decreases in the target behavior Convenient and easy to implement (can be incorporated into existing token or allowance programs) Is easily combined with other approaches (such as differential reinforcement)

27 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Methods of Response Cost Direct fine Bonus response cost Combined with positive reinforcement Group arrangements

28 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Fines Directly fine a specific amount of the positive reinforcer Consider legal and ethical appropriateness –e.g., denying access to food and free time may be unethical or undesirable –Obtain permission from human rights review committees

29 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Bonus Response Cost Make additional reinforcers available to the individual, specifically for removal during a response-cost contingency This may relieve many of the legal and ethical dilemmas involved with response cost

30 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Combining with Positive Reinforcement Combine with point/token programs (differential reinforcement) Advantages –If all points or tokens are not lost, they can be exchanged for back-up reinforcers –The use of reinforcers reduce the legal and ethical concerns

31 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Combining with Group Contingencies Contingent upon any member of a group, the entire group loses a specified amount of reinforcement

32 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Effective Use of Response Cost Specifically define the target behaviors that will result in response cost, as well as the fines Establish rules for refusals to comply with the response-cost procedure, and explain these Greater fines should be associated with more severe forms of problem behavior –Be cautious of making fines so great that the individual becomes “bankrupt”

33 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Effective Use of Response Cost Fines should be posed immediately Response cost vs. bonus response cost –Use least aversive initially (bonus response cost) Increases acceptability Decreases emotional outbursts Ensure reinforcement reserve (decrease likelihood of “bankruptcy”

34 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Effective Use of Response Cost Be prepared for unplanned or unexpected outcomes –Response cost can reinforce rather than punish undesirable behavior –Individuals can refuse to give up positive reinforcers Avoid overuse Keep records to evaluate effectiveness

35 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Response Cost Considerations Increased aggression may occur –Ignore emotional outbursts when possible Either don’t use response cost if this is expected Or be prepared to ride out the storm Avoidance of the person who administers response cost or the setting may occur –These become “conditioned aversive stimuli” –Make sure positive reinforcement is available for appropriate behavior to reduce the likelihood of this outcome

36 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Response Cost Considerations Collateral reductions of desirable behaviors may occur –Response cost may unintentionally suppress other, desirable behaviors, as well as the target problem behaviors Response cost calls attention to inappropriate behaviors Be prepared for unpredictability


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