Presentation on theme: "SPED 3380 Antecedent Interventions. INCREASE OR MAINTAIN A BEHAVIOR REDUCE A BEHAVIOR ESTABLISH A BEHAVIOR Haus & Polsgrove, 1980 Antecedents ConsequencesAntecedents."— Presentation transcript:
INCREASE OR MAINTAIN A BEHAVIOR REDUCE A BEHAVIOR ESTABLISH A BEHAVIOR Haus & Polsgrove, 1980 Antecedents ConsequencesAntecedents Consequences AntecedentsConsequences Instruction Modeling Guided Participation Shaping Cueing Contingency Premack Principle Management Stimulus Control Extinction Punishment Reinforce Competing Behavior CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIORAL CHANGE
INCREASE OR MAINTAIN A BEHAVIOR Antecedents Consequences Cueing Contingency Premack Principle Management We must make the assumption that when we INCREASE a behavior we will be replacing an existing behavior.
n antecedent stimuli that supplement discriminative stimuli in order to produce a specific target behavior n the assistance provided to the learner after the presentation of the instructional stimulus, but before the response n usually a temporary instructional aid and should be systematically phased out as soon as possible
Effective Prompting n Prompts should focus student attention on the S D n Prompts should be as weak as possible n Prompts should be faded as soon as possible n Unplanned prompts should be avoided Least Intrusive Most Intrusive Visual Verbal Modeling Physical Guidance Fade Toward Natural
Eliminating Prompts n Discriminate Stimulus Training n Time Delay Systems – gradual increase in time prior to prompt n Fading – physical prompts – visual prompts
Contingency Management Positive Reinforcement, Contracting, and Token Economies
Contingency Management n Contingency – a precise definition of the limits and range of response topographies that will produce – a specified consequence and – the environmental situation n Management – external control of events n Contingency Management – the external management of environmental stimuli that serve as reinforcers for behavioral performance
Positive Reinforcement n The process of reinforcing an appropriate target behavior in order to increase the probability that the behavior will recur – it is responsive to the child's natural need for attention and approval – it decreases the probability that the child will exhibit inappropriate behavior in an effort to obtain needed attention
Essential Rules when using Positive Reinforcement n FIRST – when a child is initially exhibiting a new appropriate behavior, it must be positively reinforced each time it occurs n SECOND – once the target behavior is established at a satisfactory rate, the child should be reinforced intermittently
Steps in the Use of Positive Reinforcement l Carefully select a target behavior (do not attempt to reinforce every positive behavior a child exhibits l Observe the child's behavior to ascertain when he or she engages in the behavior l During the initial stage, reinforce the behavior immediately after it is exhibited l Specify for the child the behavior that is being reinforced l When reinforcing, speak with enthusiasm and show interest in the child's behavior l When appropriate, the practitioner may become involved in the child's behavior, that is, give the child help l Vary the reinforcer Shea & Bauer, 1987
REDUCE A BEHAVIOR AntecedentsConsequences Stimulus Control We must make the assumption that when we DECREASE a behavior we will cause another behavior to increase. Reinforcement of Competing Behavior Extinction Time-out Punishment Restitution Satiation
Antecedents to Inappropriate Behavior n Frustration due to: – response ignorance – complex materials, lacking in appropriate behavior – lack of functional vocabulary to communicate – goal or performance interruption n Understimulation: Boredom – being ignored – meaningless repetition beyond criterion – nonfunctional activity – pacing too slow n Overstimulation – environment – rate of physical prompting or verbalizations – pace of activity n Environmental Expectations or Models
Functions Served by Inappropriate Behavior n Attention Seeking – a communication attempt to indicate needs and wants – historical/current pattern of positive reinforcement resulting in a means to access people, object, event – inconsistent pattern of reinforcement or punishment n Means of Escape/Avoidance – internal stimuli: ear ache, sinus pain, hunger, constipation, etc. – external stimuli: touching, difficult task, change of routine, noise, heat, etc. n Sensory Feedback/Stimulation – to obtain reinforcement from internal stimulation n Nature of current reinforcement n desirability, quantity, intensity, scheduling, etc.
n An inappropriate behavior chain (e.g., nail biting, smoking, encopresis) can be broken if the initial S D is determined and an alternative S D is substituted n The first S D is a chain sets the occasion for the first response, which, in turn, terminates that S and produces the onset of the second S D ; and so the chain continues n if the first S D becomes less likely, the whole chain becomes less likely n to break an inappropriate chain, the cues for not emitting the initial behavior in the chain must be stronger than the initial cues that prompted the behavior in the first place D
Stimulus Control (cont) take break go to smokephysical from classofficesatisfaction look atemotional picturesatisfaction of kids go totalk with hallstudents