Presentation on theme: "Negative Punishment: Punishment by Removal of a Stimulus"— Presentation transcript:
1Negative Punishment: Punishment by Removal of a Stimulus
2DefinitionStimulus removed contingent upon a response that decreases the future probability of that response.The future decrease in the response is a critical feature in defining punishment
3Punishment by contingent removal of a stimulus Future FrequencyStimulus ChangeStimulus AppliedStimulus RemovedBehavior is reducedType IPositive PunishmentType IINegative Punishment
4Adult places child in time out (peer attention is removed) ExampleEOChild is participating in classroom buddy activities, where attention from peers (a positive reinforcer) is available.SDAdult says, “Let’s open our books to page 12. Each of you should read the first paragraph to your buddy.”ResponseChild pokes his buddySR-Adult places child in time out (peer attention is removed)Poking a buddy occurs less often in the future when the teacher gives a classroom instruction and peer buddies are available.
5Time-out from Positive Reinforcement Is the withdrawal of the opportunity to earn positive reinforcement, or loss of access to reinforcers for a specified period of timeIs contingent upon the occurrence of a target behavior
6Important Aspects of Time-out The discrepancy between “time-out” and “time-in” must be greatThe loss of access to reinforcement must be contingent upon a target behaviorMust be a decrease in the behavior
7Time-out Procedures Isolation Nonexclusion Exclusion Planned ignoring Withdrawal of a specific positive reinforcerContingent observationTime-out ribbonExclusionTime-out roomPartition time-outHallway time-out
8Isolation Organism is isolated from the source of the reinforcement. Put the person in another room.NOTE: Isolation does not equal Seclusion or Solitary Confinement such as placing the person in a dark closet.
9Nonexclusion Time-out The individual is not completely removed physically from time-in settingHowever, position within the environment may shift
10Planned IgnoringSocial reinforcers--usually attention, physical contact, or verbal interaction--are removed for a brief periodSystematically looking away from the studentRemaining quietRefraining from any interaction for a specified period of timePlanned ignoring isNonintrusiveQuickConvenient
11Withdrawal of a Specific Positive Reinforcer Some sort of positive reinforcer that is already present is removed for a brief period of time contingent upon a target behavior, and then reinstatedCan be implemented as a group contingency
12Contingent Observation The individual is repositioned within the existing settingObservation of ongoing activities is still possibleAccess to reinforcement is lost, however
13Time-out RibbonA colored band is placed on the child’s wrist and is discriminative for receiving reinforcementChild earns reinforcers when it is onContingent upon a target behavior, the colored band is removed for a specified period of timeAll social interaction is terminatedOther reinforcers are also withheld
14Exclusion Time-outThe individual is removed, physically, from the environment for a specified period of timeContingent upon the occurrence of a target behaviorTime-out roomSeparated by partitionPlaced in hallway
15Time-out RoomA confined space outside the individual’s normal educational or treatment environmentIt is devoid of any positive reinforcers; also minimally furnishedIt is safe (adequate heat and light), secure (but not locked) and temporaryNear time-in setting
16Advantages of Time-out Rooms Opportunity to acquire reinforcement is eliminated or reduced substantiallyAfter a few exposures, students learn to discriminate it from other rooms (making the time-in setting more desirable)Decreases risk of student hurting other students
17Disadvantages of Time-out Rooms Must escort students to time-outMay result in resistance, emotional outburstsAccess to ongoing instruction is prohibitedIndividuals may engage in behaviors (e.g., self-injury) that should be stopped but go undetectedNegative public perception
18Partition Time-outIndividual remains in time-in setting, but his view within the setting is restricted by a partition, wall, or cubicleAdvantage: Keeps individual in instructional settingDisadvantages: Individual still may be able to obtain covert reinforcement, negative public perception
19Hallway Time-outIndividual sits in hallway outside of classroom or treatment areaNot highly recommended strategyIndividual can obtain reinforcement from a multitude of sourcesChild can escape easily
20Desirable Aspects of Time-out Ease of application (especially nonexclusion time-out)Acceptability (especially nonexclusion)Rapid suppression of problem behaviorEasily combined with other procedures, such as differential reinforcement
21Effective Use of Time Out Reinforce and enrich the time-in environmentUtilize differential reinforcement to reinforce alternative and incompatible behaviorsClearly define the behaviors leading to time-outAll parties (including the target individual) should have explicit, observable definitions of the problem behavior
22Effective Use of Time Out Define procedures for the duration of time-outInitial duration should be shortLonger than 15 minutes ineffectiveDefine exit criteriaIf individual is misbehaving when time-out ends, it should be continued until inappropriate behavior ceases
23Two General RulesAvoid durations that are in excess of what is necessary to decrease the behavior.Try to keep the organism in the learning environment as long as possible.Avoid inadequate or excessive durations that may increase the behavior.
24Effective Use of Time Out Exclusion vs. nonexclusion time-outConsider institutional policies that may prevent exclusion time-outPhysical factors (i.e., lack of appropriate space) may prevent exclusion time-outExplain time-out rules to the individualTarget behaviors, duration, exit criteriaObtain permissionAdministrative approvalsParental approvals
25Effective Use of Time Out Apply consistentlyEvaluate effectivenessTarget behavior should decreaseTrack frequency and duration of time outsAlso track collateral behaviors for side effectsConsider other optionsConsider legal and ethical issues
26Scale Most to Least Extreme Seclusion Put in a bare room.Exclusion Put in another part of a room.Contingent Observation.Removes the child to the periphery of the activity. Kid observes others.Removal of reinforcement.Take away the stimulating event.Ignore the person.5 sec. – 3 hoursProblem, the longer the duration, the more self stimulation or aggression may occur.
27Important Parameters for Time Out Giving explanations does not increase the effectiveness of the time out.Long discussions may actually be reinforcing.May actually decrease the effectiveness of the timeout.Warnings can increase the effectiveness if combined with timeout.Have a 5-10 second grace period.E.g., “You are not supposed to be doing ___”
28Points to Note Time out is not extinction. Key – Place the kid in a less reinforcing environment.Must be a distinct difference between Time in and Time out.“Removal of reinforcement is aversive for every individual across all contexts” is not an accurate statement.One person’s punishment may be another’s reinforcement.
29Response Cost Loss of a specific amount of reinforcement Contingent upon a target behaviorReduces the future probability of the target behaviorExamples: reclaiming awards or stickers, “fines” (e.g., loss of tokens or money)
30Example EO Child has 15 minutes of recess on schedule every morning. SDAdult says, “Let’s open our books to page 12. Each of you should read the first paragraph to your buddy.”ResponseChild pokes his buddySR-5 minutes of the recess time is removedPoking a buddy occurs less often in the future when the teacher gives a classroom instruction and recess is available.
31Desirable aspects of Response Cost Produces rapid decreases in the target behaviorConvenient and easy to implement (can be incorporated into existing token or allowance programs)Is easily combined with other approaches (such as differential reinforcement)
32Methods of Response Cost Direct fineBonus response costCombined with positive reinforcementGroup arrangements
33Fines Directly fine a specific amount of the positive reinforcer Consider legal and ethical appropriatenesse.g., denying access to food and free time may be unethical or undesirableObtain permission from human rights review committees
34Bonus Response CostMake additional reinforcers available to the individual, specifically for removal during a response-cost contingencyThis may relieve many of the legal and ethical dilemmas involved with response cost
35Combining with Positive Reinforcement Combine with point/token programs (differential reinforcement)AdvantagesIf all points or tokens are not lost, they can be exchanged for back-up reinforcersThe use of reinforcers reduce the legal and ethical concerns
36Combining with Group Contingencies Contingent upon any member of a group, the entire group loses a specified amount of reinforcement
37Effective Use of Response Cost Specifically define the target behaviors that will result in response cost, as well as the finesEstablish rules for refusals to comply with the response-cost procedure, and explain theseGreater fines should be associated with more severe forms of problem behaviorBe cautious of making fines so great that the individual becomes “bankrupt”
38Effective Use of Response Cost Fines should be posed immediatelyResponse cost vs. bonus response costUse least aversive initially (bonus response cost)Increases acceptabilityDecreases emotional outburstsEnsure reinforcement reserve (decrease likelihood of “bankruptcy”
39Effective Use of Response Cost Be prepared for unplanned or unexpected outcomesResponse cost can reinforce rather than punish undesirable behaviorIndividuals can refuse to give up positive reinforcersAvoid overuseKeep records to evaluate effectiveness
40Response Cost Considerations Increased aggression may occurIgnore emotional outbursts when possibleEither don’t use response cost if this is expectedOr be prepared to ride out the stormAvoidance of the person who administers response cost or the setting may occurThese become “conditioned aversive stimuli”Make sure positive reinforcement is available for appropriate behavior to reduce the likelihood of this outcome
41Response Cost Considerations Collateral reductions of desirable behaviors may occurResponse cost may unintentionally suppress other, desirable behaviors, as well as the target problem behaviorsResponse cost calls attention to inappropriate behaviorsBe prepared for unpredictability