Presentation on theme: "Definition Stimulus removed contingent upon a response that decreases the future probability of that response. The future decrease in the response is."— Presentation transcript:
Definition Stimulus removed contingent upon a response that decreases the future probability of that response. The future decrease in the response is a critical feature in defining punishment
Punishment by contingent removal of a stimulus Future Frequency Stimulus Change Stimulus Applied Stimulus Removed Behavior is reduced Type I Positive Punishment Type II Negative Punishment
Example S D Adult says, “Let’s open our books to page 12. Each of you should read the first paragraph to your buddy.” Response Child pokes his buddy S R- Adult places child in time out (peer attention is removed) Poking a buddy occurs less often in the future when the teacher gives a classroom instruction and peer buddies are available. EO Child is participating in classroom buddy activities, where attention from peers (a positive reinforcer) is available.
Time-out from Positive Reinforcement Is the withdrawal of the opportunity to earn positive reinforcement, or loss of access to reinforcers for a specified period of time Is contingent upon the occurrence of a target behavior
Important Aspects of Time-out The discrepancy between “time-out” and “time-in” must be great The loss of access to reinforcement must be contingent upon a target behavior Must be a decrease in the behavior
Time-out Procedures Isolation Nonexclusion Planned ignoring Withdrawal of a specific positive reinforcer Contingent observation Time-out ribbon Exclusion Time-out room Partition time-out Hallway time-out
8 Isolation Organism is isolated from the source of the reinforcement. Put the person in another room. NOTE: Isolation does not equal Seclusion or Solitary Confinement such as placing the person in a dark closet.
Nonexclusion Time-out The individual is not completely removed physically from time-in setting However, position within the environment may shift
Planned Ignoring Social reinforcers--usually attention, physical contact, or verbal interaction--are removed for a brief period Systematically looking away from the student Remaining quiet Refraining from any interaction for a specified period of time Planned ignoring is Nonintrusive Quick Convenient
Withdrawal of a Specific Positive Reinforcer Some sort of positive reinforcer that is already present is removed for a brief period of time contingent upon a target behavior, and then reinstated Can be implemented as a group contingency
Contingent Observation The individual is repositioned within the existing setting Observation of ongoing activities is still possible Access to reinforcement is lost, however
Time-out Ribbon A colored band is placed on the child’s wrist and is discriminative for receiving reinforcement Child earns reinforcers when it is on Contingent upon a target behavior, the colored band is removed for a specified period of time All social interaction is terminated Other reinforcers are also withheld
Exclusion Time-out The individual is removed, physically, from the environment for a specified period of time Contingent upon the occurrence of a target behavior Time-out room Separated by partition Placed in hallway
Time-out Room A confined space outside the individual’s normal educational or treatment environment It is devoid of any positive reinforcers; also minimally furnished It is safe (adequate heat and light), secure (but not locked) and temporary Near time-in setting
Advantages of Time-out Rooms Opportunity to acquire reinforcement is eliminated or reduced substantially After a few exposures, students learn to discriminate it from other rooms (making the time-in setting more desirable) Decreases risk of student hurting other students
Disadvantages of Time-out Rooms Must escort students to time-out May result in resistance, emotional outbursts Access to ongoing instruction is prohibited Individuals may engage in behaviors (e.g., self- injury) that should be stopped but go undetected Negative public perception
Partition Time-out Individual remains in time-in setting, but his view within the setting is restricted by a partition, wall, or cubicle Advantage: Keeps individual in instructional setting Disadvantages: Individual still may be able to obtain covert reinforcement, negative public perception
Hallway Time-out Individual sits in hallway outside of classroom or treatment area Not highly recommended strategy Individual can obtain reinforcement from a multitude of sources Child can escape easily
Desirable Aspects of Time-out Ease of application (especially nonexclusion time-out) Acceptability (especially nonexclusion) Rapid suppression of problem behavior Easily combined with other procedures, such as differential reinforcement
Effective Use of Time Out Reinforce and enrich the time-in environment Utilize differential reinforcement to reinforce alternative and incompatible behaviors Clearly define the behaviors leading to time-out All parties (including the target individual) should have explicit, observable definitions of the problem behavior
Effective Use of Time Out Define procedures for the duration of time-out Initial duration should be short Longer than 15 minutes ineffective Define exit criteria If individual is misbehaving when time-out ends, it should be continued until inappropriate behavior ceases
23 Two General Rules Avoid durations that are in excess of what is necessary to decrease the behavior. Try to keep the organism in the learning environment as long as possible. Avoid inadequate or excessive durations that may increase the behavior.
Effective Use of Time Out Exclusion vs. nonexclusion time-out Consider institutional policies that may prevent exclusion time-out Physical factors (i.e., lack of appropriate space) may prevent exclusion time-out Explain time-out rules to the individual Target behaviors, duration, exit criteria Obtain permission Administrative approvals Parental approvals
Effective Use of Time Out Apply consistently Evaluate effectiveness Target behavior should decrease Track frequency and duration of time outs Also track collateral behaviors for side effects Consider other options Consider legal and ethical issues
26 Scale Most to Least Extreme Seclusion Put in a bare room. Exclusion Put in another part of a room. Contingent Observation. Removes the child to the periphery of the activity. Kid observes others. Removal of reinforcement. Take away the stimulating event. Ignore the person. 5 sec. – 3 hours Problem, the longer the duration, the more self stimulation or aggression may occur.
27 Important Parameters for Time Out Giving explanations does not increase the effectiveness of the time out. Long discussions may actually be reinforcing. May actually decrease the effectiveness of the timeout. Warnings can increase the effectiveness if combined with timeout. Have a 5-10 second grace period. E.g., “You are not supposed to be doing ___”
28 Points to Note 1. Time out is not extinction. 2. Key – Place the kid in a less reinforcing environment. Must be a distinct difference between Time in and Time out. 3. “Removal of reinforcement is aversive for every individual across all contexts” is not an accurate statement. One person’s punishment may be another’s reinforcement.
Response Cost Loss of a specific amount of reinforcement Contingent upon a target behavior Reduces the future probability of the target behavior Examples: reclaiming awards or stickers, “fines” (e.g., loss of tokens or money)
Example S D Adult says, “Let’s open our books to page 12. Each of you should read the first paragraph to your buddy.” Response Child pokes his buddy S R- 5 minutes of the recess time is removed Poking a buddy occurs less often in the future when the teacher gives a classroom instruction and recess is available. EO Child has 15 minutes of recess on schedule every morning.
Desirable aspects of Response Cost Produces rapid decreases in the target behavior Convenient and easy to implement (can be incorporated into existing token or allowance programs) Is easily combined with other approaches (such as differential reinforcement)
Methods of Response Cost Direct fine Bonus response cost Combined with positive reinforcement Group arrangements
Fines Directly fine a specific amount of the positive reinforcer Consider legal and ethical appropriateness e.g., denying access to food and free time may be unethical or undesirable Obtain permission from human rights review committees
Bonus Response Cost Make additional reinforcers available to the individual, specifically for removal during a response-cost contingency This may relieve many of the legal and ethical dilemmas involved with response cost
Combining with Positive Reinforcement Combine with point/token programs (differential reinforcement) Advantages If all points or tokens are not lost, they can be exchanged for back-up reinforcers The use of reinforcers reduce the legal and ethical concerns
Combining with Group Contingencies Contingent upon any member of a group, the entire group loses a specified amount of reinforcement
Effective Use of Response Cost Specifically define the target behaviors that will result in response cost, as well as the fines Establish rules for refusals to comply with the response-cost procedure, and explain these Greater fines should be associated with more severe forms of problem behavior Be cautious of making fines so great that the individual becomes “bankrupt”
Effective Use of Response Cost Fines should be posed immediately Response cost vs. bonus response cost Use least aversive initially (bonus response cost) Increases acceptability Decreases emotional outbursts Ensure reinforcement reserve (decrease likelihood of “bankruptcy”
Effective Use of Response Cost Be prepared for unplanned or unexpected outcomes Response cost can reinforce rather than punish undesirable behavior Individuals can refuse to give up positive reinforcers Avoid overuse Keep records to evaluate effectiveness
Response Cost Considerations Increased aggression may occur Ignore emotional outbursts when possible Either don’t use response cost if this is expected Or be prepared to ride out the storm Avoidance of the person who administers response cost or the setting may occur These become “conditioned aversive stimuli” Make sure positive reinforcement is available for appropriate behavior to reduce the likelihood of this outcome
Response Cost Considerations Collateral reductions of desirable behaviors may occur Response cost may unintentionally suppress other, desirable behaviors, as well as the target problem behaviors Response cost calls attention to inappropriate behaviors Be prepared for unpredictability