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Using Punishment?.

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Presentation on theme: "Using Punishment?."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Punishment?

2 Side effects and ethical issues:
Elicitation of undesirable emotional response and aggression Escape and Avoidance Increased rate of the problem behavior under nonpunishment Modeling undesirable behavior Not teaching the learner what to do Overusing punishment because of the negative reinforcement it provides the punishing agent.

3 Let’s look at some examples Warning: This may be hard to watch

4 Punishment effects Traditional Definition: Any contingent event which results in a decrease in operant responding New Definition: Punishment effects are Produced when schedule constraints produce a state of of disequilibrium Give the individual “Too much” of something contingent on a behavior

5 Positive Punishment Interventions: Reprimands
Delivery of verbal reprimands following the occurrence of misbehavior is an example of attempted positive punishment. Reprimands given repeatedly may lead to habituation to the reprimand.

6 Why not use negative reinforcement?
Side effects: don’t like the person delivering negative reinforcer Uneven and sporadic behavior Strong stimulus cues: only behave when “sD” is around: when teacher not there, the kids go wild!

7 Guidelines for punishment
Behavior must be dangerous to person or others No chance to interrupt and reinforce “good” behavior Tried other alternatives

8 Remember: Punishment as part of a behavior change program has nothing to do with retribution. Punishment is not about threats. When punishers are threatened and not delivered, the organism learns that your verbal threats are not associated with the actual punishing behavior.

9 Using Punishment Effectively
Use the Least Intensity of Punishment That is Effective Ethical guidelines and the doctrine of the least restrictive alternative require that punishment be: the most effective but least intrusive form of punishment Punishment is most effective when the learner can make other responses for reinforcement. The more reinforcement the learner obtains by emitting appropriate behavior, the less motivate he will be to emit the problem behavior

10 Using Punishment Effectively
Deliver the Punishment Unemotionally Punishment should be delivered in a business-like, matter-of-fact manner. Resist statement such as, “I told you so.” “Now, you’ve gone and done it.” and “What do you have to say for yourself?” All you want to do is modify behavior, not make people atone for their sins.

11 Least Restrictive Alternative
less intrusive procedures should be tried and found to be ineffective before more intrusive procedures are implemented. View punishment as falling along a continuum of restrictiveness from least to most. A procedure’s overall level of restrictiveness is a combined function of its absolute level of restrictiveness the amount of time required to produce a clinically acceptable outcome the consequences associated with delayed intervention.

12 Right to Effective Treatment
Failing to use a punishment procedure that research has show to suppress self-destructive behavior similar to the client’s is unethical because it withholds a potentially effective treatment may maintain a dangerous or uncomfortable state for the person. Consult local, state, or professional association policy statement regarding the use of punishment.

13 Positive Punishment Interventions: Reprimands
Delivery of verbal reprimands following the occurrence of misbehavior is an example of attempted positive punishment. Reprimands given repeatedly may lead to habituation to the reprimand.

14 Response Blocking Physically intervening as soon as the person begins to emit the problem behavior prevent or “block” the completion of the response show to be effective in reducing the frequency of some problem behaviors. Suppressive effects of response blocking may be due to punishment or to extinction. Side effects: aggression and resistance to the response blocking procedure

15 Overcorrection: contingent on the problem behavior, the organism is required to engage in effortful behavior that is directly or logically related to the problem. Two Forms: Restitutional: Restoring environment Positive Practice: practicing the correct response Contingent Exercise: organism is required to perform a response that is not topographically related to the problem behavior. Both overcorrection and contingent exercise developed out of Premack’s principle/Disequilibrium

16 Contingent Electric Stimulation
More than 100 studies have demonstrated that contingent electric stimulation can be a safe and highly effective method for suppressing chronic and life- threatening self-injurious behavior (SIB). Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (SIBIS) Functional analyses have shown that these behaviors occur for Attention Escape Pain or self stim Extinction is ineffective; sometimes must punish But also must reinforce!

17 Take home message Punishment, particularly positive punishment, is part of a continuum of treatment Positive reinforcement first Reinforce alternative (opposite) responses There are individuals who engage in behavior SO severe that immediate disruption of the behavior is necessary- for those individuals positive punishment MAY be their least restrictive treatment.

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