2Side effects and ethical issues: Elicitation of undesirable emotional response and aggressionEscape and AvoidanceIncreased rate of the problem behavior under nonpunishmentModeling undesirable behaviorNot teaching the learner what to doOverusing punishment because of the negative reinforcement it provides the punishing agent.
3Let’s look at some examples Warning: This may be hard to watch
4Punishment effectsTraditional Definition: Any contingent event which results in a decrease in operant respondingNew Definition: Punishment effects are Produced when schedule constraints produce a state of of disequilibriumGive the individual “Too much” of something contingent on a behavior
5Positive Punishment Interventions: Reprimands Delivery of verbal reprimands following the occurrence of misbehavior is an example of attempted positive punishment.Reprimands given repeatedly may lead to habituation to the reprimand.
6Why not use negative reinforcement? Side effects: don’t like the person delivering negative reinforcerUneven and sporadic behaviorStrong stimulus cues: only behave when “sD” is around: when teacher not there, the kids go wild!
7Guidelines for punishment Behavior must be dangerous to person or othersNo chance to interrupt and reinforce “good” behaviorTried other alternatives
8Remember:Punishment as part of a behavior change program has nothing to do with retribution.Punishment is not about threats.When punishers are threatened and not delivered, the organism learns that your verbal threats are not associated with the actual punishing behavior.
9Using Punishment Effectively Use the Least Intensity of Punishment That is EffectiveEthical guidelines and the doctrine of the least restrictive alternative require that punishment be:the most effectivebut least intrusive form of punishmentPunishment is most effective when the learner can make other responses for reinforcement.The more reinforcement the learner obtains by emitting appropriate behavior, the less motivate he will be to emit the problem behavior
10Using Punishment Effectively Deliver the Punishment UnemotionallyPunishment should be delivered in a business-like, matter-of-fact manner.Resist statement such as, “I told you so.” “Now, you’ve gone and done it.” and “What do you have to say for yourself?”All you want to do is modify behavior, not make people atone for their sins.
11Least Restrictive Alternative less intrusive procedures should be tried and found to be ineffective before more intrusive procedures are implemented.View punishment as falling along a continuum of restrictiveness from least to most.A procedure’s overall level of restrictiveness is a combined function ofits absolute level of restrictivenessthe amount of time required to produce a clinically acceptable outcomethe consequences associated with delayed intervention.
12Right to Effective Treatment Failing to use a punishment procedure that research has show to suppress self-destructive behavior similar to the client’s is unethical becauseit withholds a potentially effective treatmentmay maintain a dangerous or uncomfortable state for the person.Consult local, state, or professional association policy statement regarding the use of punishment.
13Positive Punishment Interventions: Reprimands Delivery of verbal reprimands following the occurrence of misbehavior is an example of attempted positive punishment.Reprimands given repeatedly may lead to habituation to the reprimand.
14Response BlockingPhysically intervening as soon as the person begins to emit the problem behaviorprevent or “block” the completion of the responseshow to be effective in reducing the frequency of some problem behaviors.Suppressive effects of response blocking may be due to punishment or to extinction.Side effects: aggression and resistance to the response blocking procedure
15Overcorrection:contingent on the problem behavior, the organism is required to engage in effortful behavior that is directly or logically related to the problem.Two Forms:Restitutional: Restoring environmentPositive Practice: practicing the correct responseContingent Exercise: organism is required to perform a response that is not topographically related to the problem behavior.Both overcorrection and contingent exercise developed out of Premack’s principle/Disequilibrium
16Contingent Electric Stimulation More than 100 studies have demonstrated that contingent electric stimulation can be a safe and highly effective method for suppressing chronic and life- threatening self-injurious behavior (SIB).Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (SIBIS)Functional analyses have shown that these behaviors occur forAttentionEscapePain or self stimExtinction is ineffective; sometimes must punishBut also must reinforce!
17Take home messagePunishment, particularly positive punishment, is part of a continuum of treatmentPositive reinforcement firstReinforce alternative (opposite) responsesThere are individuals who engage in behavior SO severe that immediate disruption of the behavior is necessary- for those individuals positive punishment MAY be their least restrictive treatment.