Presentation on theme: "Thinking About Psychology: The Science of"— Presentation transcript:
1 Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind & BehaviorModule 16
2 Reinforcement vs. Punishment Concept: Studies show that reinforcement is better in encouraging behavior than punishment.Directions: Choose the letter for the situation that is more likely to encourage behavior.
3 A. Your parents offer you $100 for each “A” you receive on your report card. B. Your parents make you pay them $100 for each time you don’t make an “A” on your report card.A- This situation uses positive reinforcement instead of the punishment used in situation B.
4 A. You receive a painful shock each time you watch more than 2 hours of TV a night. B. You earn an extra 10 minutes added to your curfew for watching less than 2 hours of TV a night.B- Getting a reward in this situation is likely to decrease TV watching.
5 OperantConditioningA type of learning in which the frequency of a behavior depends on the consequence that follows that behaviorThe frequency will increase if the consequence is reinforcing to the subject.The frequency will decrease if the consequence is not reinforcing to the subject.
6 Reinforcement & Punishment Reinforcement - Any consequence that increases the likelihood of the behavior it followsPunishment - Any consequence that decreases the likelihood of the behavior it followsThe subject determines if a consequence is reinforcing or punishing
7 Positive Reinforcement Anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with a desirable event or stateThe subject receives something they wantWill strengthen the behavior
8 Negative Reinforcement Yelling at student to wear their uniform Anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with the removal of an undesirable event or stateNote: the behavior is a means of either ESCAPING or AVOIDING an undesirable situationSomething the subject doesn’t like is removedWill strengthen the behaviorYelling at student to wear their uniform
10 Primary Reinforcement Something that is naturally reinforcingExamples: food, warmth, water, etc.The item is reinforcing in and of itself
11 Secondary Reinforcement Something that a person has learned to value or finds rewarding because it is paired with a primary reinforcerMoney is a good example
12 Punishment: The Process of Punishment I will study for my psychology test.I will study for my psychology test.I will study for my psychology test.I will study for my psychology test.I will study for my psychology test.
13 Types of Punishment An undesirable event following a behavior A desirable state or event ends following a behavior
14 Negative Effects of Punishment Doesn’t prevent the undesirable behavior when away from the punisherCan lead to fear, anxiety, and lower self-esteemChildren who are punished physically may learn to use aggression as a means to solve problems.May explain why abusive parents tend to come from abusive families.
15 Positive Effects of Punishment Punishment can effectively control certain behaviors.Especially useful if teaching a child not to do a dangerous behaviorMost still suggest reinforcing an incompatible behavior rather than using punishment
16 ShapingTechnique used to establish a new behavior, that otherwise probably wouldn’t happenReinforcement of behaviors that are more and more similar to the one you want to occurExample: Learning to ride a bike without training wheels. Although you fall off, your parents keep telling you “Good Job!” This helps encourage you to go further alone.
17 The goal of operant conditioning is to change behavior
18 Steps to Completing Scenarios Identify the behavior in the scenarioIdentify the reward OR punishment in the scenarioDetermine whether the scenario is positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, or extinctionJustify your answer
19 Ruby has learned that if she leaves early for work, she can avoid heavy traffic.
20 Ruby has learned that if she leaves early for work, she can avoid heavy traffic.
21 Ruby has learned that if she leaves early for work, she can avoid heavy traffic.
22 This is ____________ because the behavior (leaving early for work) __________ as heavy traffic is ___________.
23 This is negative reinforcement because the behavior (leaving early for work) __________ as heavy traffic is ___________.
24 This is negative reinforcement because the behavior (leaving early for work) increases as heavy traffic is ___________.
25 This is negative reinforcement because the behavior (leaving early for work) increases as heavy traffic is removed.
26 Goal: Wear a Uniform! Positive Reinforcement Person receives extra credit for wearing a uniform
27 Goal: Wear a Uniform! Negative Reinforcement Person wears uniform to avoid lecture
28 Goal: decrease uniform misbehavior (punishment) Giving detention for being out of uniform to decrease uniform misbehavior
29 Goal: decrease uniform misbehavior (punishment) Removing person from class (and going to in-school) to decrease uniform misbehavior
31 Continuous Reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows every correct responseMost useful way to establish a behaviorThe behavior will extinguish quickly once the reinforcement stops.Example: Vending machines.Example: A teacher giving extra credit to students who participate in class.
32 Partial Reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows only some correct responsesWhen our behavior is reinforced intermittently (only some of the time), hope springs eternal and we are reluctant to give up.Example: Lottery tickets- People don’t expect to win every time they buy a ticket. Therefore they continue to buy tickets even if they don’t win.Partial reinforcement schedules produce responding that is hard to extinguish.Includes the following types:Fixed-interval and variable intervalFixed-ratio and variable-ratio
33 Fixed-Interval Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule that rewards only the first correct response after some defined period of timeExample: A researcher always reinforces a rat’s first bar press after 60 seconds. After receiving a food pellet (reinforcement) for that response, the rat has to wait 60 seconds before it will be reinforced for another correct response.The interval (60 seconds) is fixed, and there is no way the rat can get reinforced during the interval
34 Variable-Interval Schedule A partial reinforcement that rewards the first correct response after an unpredictable amount of timeRat learns to respond at a moderate, steady rateFast responses don’t get extra rewards, so speed is not importantExample: “pop” quiz in a class
35 Fixed-Ratio ScheduleA partial reinforcement schedule that rewards a response only after some defined number of correct responsesThe faster the subject responds, the more reinforcements they will receive.Speed matters-The faster the rat makes the required amount of responses, the faster it will be fed.Example: Stores that run “Buy 5, Get 1 free” specials.
36 Variable-Ratio Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule that rewards an unpredictable number of correct responsesRats tend to respond fast and to continue responding after receiving a reinforcement. After all, the next response could always be the response that pays off, and the only way to find out is to make that response!This schedule is very resistant to extinction.Sometimes called the “gambler’s schedule”; similar to a slot machine