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Chapter 5 Silent Communication. Nonverbal Communication The transmission of messages w/o spoken words The transmission of messages w/o spoken words –

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Silent Communication. Nonverbal Communication The transmission of messages w/o spoken words The transmission of messages w/o spoken words –"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Silent Communication

2 Nonverbal Communication The transmission of messages w/o spoken words The transmission of messages w/o spoken words – Body language… Smell, Taste, Touch Smell, Taste, Touch Proxemics & Kinesics Proxemics & Kinesics – gender, status, culture & space – types of gestures – Gesture systems... – Sign languages… analyzing signs analyzing signs – Paralanguage… – Speech substitutes….

3 Body Language Learned in cultural groups Learned in cultural groups Interpreted unconsciously Interpreted unconsciously Often overrides verbal language Often overrides verbal language ~60% of communication? ~60% of communication? Beware of guidebooks. Beware of guidebooks.

4 Smell, Taste, and Touch Smell Smell – And ethnicity, culture – Cigars, perfumes and status Taste Taste – And group membership Spicy foods.. Spicy foods.. Touch Touch – And gender and power Relation to proxemics…. Relation to proxemics….

5 Proxemics Edward Hall, 1950s Edward Hall, 1950s How people perceive and use space How people perceive and use space Cowboy proxemics Cowboy proxemics Getting to theatre seats. Getting to theatre seats.

6 Gender, Status, & Space Entering into someone’s ‘space’ Entering into someone’s ‘space’ Getting the ‘best’ office Getting the ‘best’ office – Or the biggest bedroom Having one’s own ‘space’ Having one’s own ‘space’ – Dens vs sewing rooms.

7 Culture and Space Different arrangements Different arrangements – US grids & French circles – German doors: closed vs open Different uses Different uses – Where to eat in the Comoros Depends on gender too. Depends on gender too.

8 Kinesics Ray Birdwhistell, 1950s Ray Birdwhistell, 1950s Body movements Body movements – Shrugs, nods. Arm & leg-crossing Facial expressions Facial expressions – Smiles, frowns, winks Gestures Gestures – Palm up / palm down – Thumbs up! Kinemes, allokines, & kinemorphs. Kinemes, allokines, & kinemorphs.

9 Typology of Gestures Eckman & Friesen, 1960s Eckman & Friesen, 1960s – Emblems Translatable (waving) Translatable (waving) – Illustrators Of what is said (steering) Of what is said (steering) – Affect Displays Convey emotion (smiling) Convey emotion (smiling) – Regulators Control or coordinate (pointing) Control or coordinate (pointing) – Adaptors Facilitate release (wiggling). Facilitate release (wiggling).

10 Gesture Systems Where verbal communication is difficult Where verbal communication is difficult Topics and contexts are limited Topics and contexts are limited – Simple alternative systems Little or no syntax Little or no syntax – Sawmills, baseball games, sailboat racing – Complex alternative systems Syntax based on spoken language: Syntax based on spoken language: – Australian women mourners – Some monastic orders Syntax independent of any spoken language Syntax independent of any spoken language – Native American Plains sign language  Signs used in varying order.

11 Paralanguage Sounds that “accompany” speech Sounds that “accompany” speech – But aren’t words themselves George Trager (1950s) George Trager (1950s) – voice qualities Loudness, tone of voice Loudness, tone of voice Pitch, speed, rhythm Pitch, speed, rhythm Vocal modifications: Vocal modifications: – whispering, cooing, breathy voice, rising intonation – Vocal segregates (or vocal gestures) Stand on their own Stand on their own – uh-huh, mhmm, shhhh, throat-clearing – Ideophones? Bam, pow, slurp!. Bam, pow, slurp!.

12 Speech Substitutes Sound signals substitute for spoken words Sound signals substitute for spoken words – Or parts of words Useful for communicating over distances Useful for communicating over distances Examples: Examples: – Drum languages based on tones (Nigeria) based on tones (Nigeria) – Whistle languages based on tones (Mazateco) based on tones (Mazateco) based on vowels (La Gomera) based on vowels (La Gomera) – different whistled pitches = different vowels

13 Sign Language Used by deaf people Used by deaf people – ‘Language performed in three-dimensional space’ Topics and contexts are unlimited Topics and contexts are unlimited – Syntax is complex, unique to specific language American Sign Language (ASL; Ameslan) vs British American Sign Language (ASL; Ameslan) vs British – Mutually unintelligible; not based on English syntax Signs = concepts, not words (‘right’ vs ‘right’) Signs = concepts, not words (‘right’ vs ‘right’) Syntax = one sign can stand for several words Syntax = one sign can stand for several words – E.g., “I-ask-her” is one sign  vs Signed English (SEE1 & 2) which follows English syntax.

14 Analyzing Signs Primes Primes – Basic elements of signs (correspond to phonemes?) – Combine into morphemes Three kinds of primes Three kinds of primes – Hand shape Fist (A), Flat (B), Cupped (C) Fist (A), Flat (B), Cupped (C) – Hand placement – Hand movement Minimal pairs Minimal pairs – Apple vs candy (shape: fist hand vs cupped hand) – Summer vs ugly (place: forehead vs nose level).


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