2 Nonverbal Communication The transmission of messages w/o spoken wordsBody language…Smell, Taste, TouchProxemics & Kinesicsgender, status, culture & spacetypes of gesturesGesture systems...Sign languages…analyzing signsParalanguage…Speech substitutes….
3 Body Language Learned in cultural groups Interpreted unconsciously Often overrides verbal language~60% of communication?Beware of guidebooks.
4 Smell, Taste, and Touch Smell Taste Touch And ethnicity, culture Cigars, perfumes and statusTasteAnd group membershipSpicy foods..TouchAnd gender and powerRelation to proxemics….
5 Proxemics Edward Hall, 1950s How people perceive and use space Cowboy proxemicsGetting to theatre seats.
6 Gender, Status, & Space Entering into someone’s ‘space’ Getting the ‘best’ officeOr the biggest bedroomHaving one’s own ‘space’Dens vs sewing rooms.
7 Culture and Space Different arrangements Different uses US grids & French circlesGerman doors: closed vs openDifferent usesWhere to eat in the ComorosDepends on gender too.
8 Kinesics Ray Birdwhistell, 1950s Body movements Facial expressions Shrugs, nods. Arm & leg-crossingFacial expressionsSmiles, frowns, winksGesturesPalm up / palm downThumbs up!Kinemes, allokines, & kinemorphs.
9 Typology of Gestures Eckman & Friesen, 1960s Emblems Illustrators Translatable (waving)IllustratorsOf what is said (steering)Affect DisplaysConvey emotion (smiling)RegulatorsControl or coordinate (pointing)AdaptorsFacilitate release (wiggling).
10 Gesture Systems Where verbal communication is difficult Topics and contexts are limitedSimple alternative systemsLittle or no syntaxSawmills, baseball games, sailboat racingComplex alternative systemsSyntax based on spoken language:Australian women mournersSome monastic ordersSyntax independent of any spoken languageNative American Plains sign languageSigns used in varying order.
11 Paralanguage Sounds that “accompany” speech But aren’t words themselvesGeorge Trager (1950s)voice qualitiesLoudness, tone of voicePitch, speed, rhythmVocal modifications:whispering, cooing, breathy voice, rising intonationVocal segregates (or vocal gestures)Stand on their ownuh-huh, mhmm, shhhh, throat-clearingIdeophones?Bam, pow, slurp!.
12 Speech Substitutes Sound signals substitute for spoken words Or parts of wordsUseful for communicating over distancesExamples:Drum languagesbased on tones (Nigeria)Whistle languagesbased on tones (Mazateco)based on vowels (La Gomera)different whistled pitches = different vowels
13 Sign Language Used by deaf people Topics and contexts are unlimited ‘Language performed in three-dimensional space’Topics and contexts are unlimitedSyntax is complex, unique to specific languageAmerican Sign Language (ASL; Ameslan) vs BritishMutually unintelligible; not based on English syntaxSigns = concepts, not words (‘right’ vs ‘right’)Syntax = one sign can stand for several wordsE.g., “I-ask-her” is one signvs Signed English (SEE1 & 2) which follows English syntax.
14 Analyzing Signs Primes Three kinds of primes Minimal pairs Basic elements of signs (correspond to phonemes?)Combine into morphemesThree kinds of primesHand shapeFist (A), Flat (B), Cupped (C)Hand placementHand movementMinimal pairsApple vs candy (shape: fist hand vs cupped hand)Summer vs ugly (place: forehead vs nose level).