Presentation on theme: "Anthropology 340 LANGUAGE AND CULTURE Non-Verbal Communication."— Presentation transcript:
Anthropology 340 LANGUAGE AND CULTURE Non-Verbal Communication
Communication Definition: the act of transmitting information from one individual or organism to another Language is only one part of communication
Human Communication includes: Language Paralanguage Kinesics Proxemics Social Expectations Cultural Meanings
Paralanguage Definition: Pitch, tone and cadence used in speech Accents depend in part on paralinguistic differences in how the same words and sentences are spoken.
Kinesics includes Facial Expressions Gestures Body Language
Facial Expressions 1 2 3 In which case are these women... ___Making a point ___Explaining something ___Listening
Facial Expressions Go to: http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/ mind/surveys/smiles/index.shtml and Take the test!
Gestures Making a strong point... Making an angry point... Greeting... Explaining precisely...
Body Language Which man is... ___Bored ___Defensive ___Relaxed 1 2 3
Body Language, con’t Which man is... ___Bored ___Defensive ___Relaxed 1 2 3
Body Language, con’t FLIRTING Females contract and make themselves smaller Females face their bodies and their faces toward the male Males make themselves bigger Males keep their bodies neutral and turn their heads to face the female
Proxemics Definition: the culturally determined use of space to communicate social roles, statuses and activities.
Proxemics When given an unstructured social setting with flexible objects, people will rearrange the objects to reflect the activities that are occuring, and the closed social groups that have formed.
Proxemics On this beach, people have used towels and blankets to claim private space for themselves. The blankets can be very close together, but as long as they are not touching, they are not part of an adjoining private space.
Personal Space Each culture has its definitions for how close people should be in differing social situations. This photo of research on breath odor violates the American notion of personal distance.
Personal Space, con’t... As does this photo of odor researchers at the same institute. In American society, we should not be able to smell the bodily odors of those with whom we socialize.
Social & Business Space The executive desk used in western industrialized societies is designed to keep communicators at appropriate social distance.
Social & Business Space, con’t These American workers would be too close without the barriers in this office complex. The barriers give the illusion of appropriate social distance, but do not keep out sound or smells from adjoining cubicles. By standing, one can even see how close others are. However, seated at work, the illusion is maintained.
Social & Business Space, con;t Here desks are arranged so that appropriate distance is maintained in a more informal and open environment than the previous picture. This is a much more informal work environment than the last. Informality is signaled by the lack of barriers and the facing positionof the desks.
Public Space Public distance is maintained here with the use of the stage, which keeps the audience and the participant 20 to 30 feet apart.
Social Expectations Definition: the culturally- defined behavior patterns that are associated with social settings. EG. The student who called me “missy” in the classroom was communicating that she saw herself in a particular kind of social relationship with me.
Cultural Meaning Definition: the shared meanings associated with behaviors that can only be correctly interpreted by insiders who know them EG. In the past, only men shook hands. Now women have the choice to shake or not to shake. When they choose to shake, they are communicating something about their personal attitudes regarding gender issues in this culture that is understood by other Americans.