Presentation on theme: "Paralanguage: Nonverbal Communication “People are more frightened of being lonely than of being hungry, or being deprived of sleep, or of having their."— Presentation transcript:
Paralanguage: Nonverbal Communication “People are more frightened of being lonely than of being hungry, or being deprived of sleep, or of having their sexual needs unfulfilled” (Frieda Fromm Reichmenn).
Paralanguage: Nonverbal Communication Communication by means other than language.
Paralanguage includes Facial expressions Tones of voice Gestures Eye contact Spatial arrangements Patterns of touch Expressive movements Silence
Paralanguage includes intentional and unintentional nonverbal messages
Paralanguage may be: Complementary Unconscious Learned
Universals and Cultural Variations eyebrow flash, the nose wrinkle basic emotions: --happiness, sadness, disgust, fear, anger, and surprise
The functions of nonverbal communication To repeat what was said verbally To complement what was said verbally To contradict to what was said verbally To substitute for what would be said verbally To regulate and manage the communication event
Nonverbal communication divided into Kinesic and Proxemic acts Kinesics: The study of nonverbal gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, and body posture Proxemics: The study of the use of space, touch, and distance as features of nonverbal communication.
Inborn Nonverbal Actions Smiling Crying
Universality versus Relativism Birdwhistell (1970) Emblems: are gestures understood by participant of a communicative community to express a specific meaning
Cultural Specific Emblems Can you guess what the following gestures from Japan, France and Iran mean?
Could reflect social status and gender Dominance versus subordination In North America ---more space---take less space ---stare at others ---less eye contact --- smile more-- smile less
Dangers of overgeneralizations Cannot assume everybody in a culture behaves the same way Infrequent actions should not be used to characterize a culture We should not ignore that nonverbal behaviors are part of complex communication processes
How do we communicate with those we don’t know? Leonard Zunin (The First Four Minutes, 1972) Three common behaviours: which side of the path” look I acknowledge you” look Look—away priority”
Proxemics Edward, T Hall in 1963 refers to touch and issues of personal space
Distance Between Faces Tone of Voice Type of Message very close (3-6") soft whisper top secret or sensual close (8-12") audible whisper very confidential neutral (20-36") soft voice, low volume personal subject matter neutral (4.5-5') full voice non-personal information across the room (8-20') loud voice talking to a group stretching the limit
All nonverbal communication is best understood within cultural context Body movements Eye contact Facial expressions Touch
Silence also part of nonverbal communication Sends nonverbal clues during communication Culturally determined Igbos of Nigeria
Do you think that understanding nonverbal patterns can help us identify our own ethnocentric attitudes?