Presentation on theme: "Paralanguage: Nonverbal Communication"— Presentation transcript:
1Paralanguage: Nonverbal Communication “People are more frightened of being lonely than of being hungry, or being deprived of sleep, or of having their sexual needs unfulfilled” (Frieda Fromm Reichmenn).
2Paralanguage: Nonverbal Communication Communication by means other than language.
3Paralanguage includes Facial expressionsTones of voiceGesturesEye contactSpatial arrangementsPatterns of touchExpressive movementsSilence
4Paralanguage includes intentional and unintentional nonverbal messages
5Paralanguage may be:ComplementaryUnconsciousLearned
6Universals and Cultural Variations eyebrow flash, the nose wrinklebasic emotions:--happiness, sadness, disgust, fear, anger, and surprise
7The functions of nonverbal communication To repeat what was said verballyTo complement what was said verballyTo contradict to what was said verballyTo substitute for what would be said verballyTo regulate and manage the communication event
8Nonverbal communication divided into Kinesic and Proxemic actsKinesics: The study of nonverbal gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, and body postureProxemics: The study of the use of space, touch, and distance as features of nonverbal communication.
10Universality versus Relativism Birdwhistell (1970)Emblems: are gestures understood by participant of a communicative community to express a specific meaning
11Cultural Specific Emblems Can you guess what the following gestures from Japan, France and Iran mean?
12Could reflect social status and gender Dominance versus subordinationIn North America---more space---take less space---stare at others ---less eye contact--- smile more-- smile less
13Dangers of overgeneralizations Cannot assume everybody in a culture behaves the same wayInfrequent actions should not be used to characterize a cultureWe should not ignore that nonverbal behaviors are part of complex communication processes
14How do we communicate with those we don’t know? Leonard Zunin (The First Four Minutes, 1972)Three common behaviours:which side of the path” lookI acknowledge you” lookLook—away priority”
15Proxemics Edward, T Hall in 1963 refers to touch and issues of personal space
17Distance Between Faces. Tone of Voice Distance Between Faces Tone of Voice Type of Message very close (3-6") soft whisper top secret or sensual close (8-12") audible whisper very confidential neutral (20-36") soft voice, low volume personal subject matter neutral (4.5-5') full voice non-personal information across the room (8-20') loud voice talking to a group stretching the limit