Presentation on theme: "FIRST PRESIDENTS: WASHINGTON AND ADAMS M. WILLIAMSON."— Presentation transcript:
FIRST PRESIDENTS: WASHINGTON AND ADAMS M. WILLIAMSON
George Washington 1 st President of the U.S. with John Adams as Vice President Set precedent for 2 terms by not running in 1796 and name of “Mr. President” Led nation to independence and started first republic Precedent - Act or decision that sets an example for others to follow. AKA: Tradition
CABINET MEMBERS- 5 EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS WASHINGTON MET REGULARLY WITH THE THREE DEPARTMENT HEADS, OR SECRETARIES, AND THE ATTORNEY GENERAL, WHICH TOGETHER BECAME KNOWN AS THE CABINET.5 EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS Henry Knox- Secretary of War (responsible for ALL military affairs; now it is a part of the Secretary of Defense) Edmund Randolph- Attorney General (top law enforcement officer and lawyer for the government) Samuel Osgood- Postmaster General (the national politician in charge of the postal system of a country- it is NOT in the cabinet today!) Thomas Jefferson- Secretary of State (this official is solely responsible for foreign affairs) Alexander Hamilton- Secretary of the Treasury (Responsible for the economy, economic growth, and taxes)
Judiciary Act of 1789 established 13 district courts and 3 circuit courts to serve the nation. It also created the Supreme Court with ONE Chief Justice and FIVE Associate Justices (not like today), and the office of Attorney General. It was actually a compromise act, One group in Congress favored a national legal system, and a second favored state courts. State laws would remain, but federal courts would have the power to reverse state decisions. John Jay First Chief Justice to the Supreme Court; he was a federalist who agreed with Hamilton on many issues. National Debt Total sum of money a government owes
Hamilton tried to create a way to strengthen the economy. Set up the First National Bank for a strong economy and created plans to repay debt; Secretary of Treasury; He proposed to repay war bonds at their original level, which was believed to make speculators (people who risk money in order to make profit) unfairly rich Bonds are certificates that promises to repay the money loaned plus interest Hamilton also proposed a tax on all foreign goods to protect American industry (tax on imports) District of Columbia Capital city of America; location along the Potomac River between MD and VA. This capital was a compromise for Southerners.
The Whiskey Rebellion demonstrated that the new national government had the willingness and ability to suppress violent resistance to its laws Protesters used violence and intimidation to prevent federal officials from collecting the tax. Washington sent in the militia to crush the rebellion. The rebels all went home before the arrival of the army, and there was no confrontation. About 20 men were arrested, but all were later acquitted or pardoned.
Battle of Fallen Timbers (OHIO) After the Revolution, the Americans were given land in the “new” Northwest Territory, which once belonged to the Natives. As settlers came into the area, conflict ensued. In 1792, Washington sent in General Anthony and General Arthur St.Clair into native territory. Wayne’s men defeated Shawnees, under leader Blue Jacket. The battle, which was a decisive victory for the United States, ended major hostilities in the region until Tecumseh and the Battle of Tippecanoe in Treaty of Greenville 1795; signed by the Shawnees, Miami's and 10 other Native Nations giving up land in southern Ohio. In return, they received $20,000
Meanwhile… in Europe, the French Revolution was happening. Began with attack on Bastille, 1789, as a rebellion against King Louis XVI, led by Marquis de Lafayette about difference in socio- economic status Neutrality- Policy of not taking a side between two opposing parties. Neutrality Proclamation Washington’s decision in April 1793 to remain neutral in Fr. Revolution to avoid war and it forbade Americans to aid G.B. or FR. This policy was created in hopes of not being attacked by either G.B. or FR.
Impressment- The act of forcing someone to serve in the military or navy; During the British war with France, American sailors were impressed by the English for trading overseas. Jay’s Treaty Treaty for American ships to receive pay in damages from Britain captured during their war with France; also made Americans pay debt to Britain from before the Revolution…Isolationists like this because they remain neutral! Farewell Address Washington’s 1796 publication stating his retirement. In it, he spoke of international neutrality and avoidance of political parties
Federalists- (led by Hamilton) *Name originally referred to one who supported the ratification of the Constitution, but then changed to one who supported Washington’s administration *Favored: Strong national government, rule by the wealthy, emphasized manufacturing, a loose interpretation of the Constitution, alliance with Britain, and a National Bank
Democratic Republican (led by Jefferson) *Also known as Republicans, but today the party refers to the Democratic party or the Party of Jefferson Influenced by the newspaper, National Gazette, these people disagreed with Hamilton *Favored: Rule by the people, strong state governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, alliance with France, and state banks
Implied Powers- Powers that are not specifically expressed in the Constitution *Hamilton used this idea to justify a national bank Election of Candidates were John Adams and Charles Pinckney (Federalists) vs. Jefferson and Aaron Burr (Republicans). Adams won the electoral vote and Jefferson finished second. What is the problem with this? XYZ Affair- After the passage of Jay’s Treaty, the French began seizing American ships that carried cargo to Britain. John Adams (the President at the time, 1797), sent delegates to meet with the French foreign minister Charles de Talleyrand, but refused. The French then sent three agents to the meeting who demanded a bribe and loan for France. American diplomats replied, “Not a sixpense!” The term XYZ refer to the three French agents.
The Alien Act allowed the President to imprison “aliens” or send those considered dangerous out of the country. Because of the French treats, Americans were weary of immigrants living in the country (“aliens”). The Sedition Act, which refers to activities that weaken the government, made it a crime to speak, write, or publish “false,” scandalous, and malicious criticisms of the government. VA and KY Resolutions- Supported by Jefferson and Madison, these documents claimed that the Alien and Sedition Acts could not be put into action because it VIOLATED the Constitution. KY took it a step further and suggested that the states should nullify (legally overturn) the law.