Presentation on theme: "A NEW NATION Chapter 8. George Washington in New York A depiction of George Washington riding into New York on November 25, 1783 to the cheers of a large."— Presentation transcript:
A NEW NATION Chapter 8
George Washington in New York A depiction of George Washington riding into New York on November 25, 1783 to the cheers of a large crowd.
George and Martha Washington at Presidential Reception Guests bow to President Washington and the First Lady during a reception in 1798.
Judiciary Act of 1789 Established a federal court system 13 district courts 3 circuit or appeals courts Had power to reverse any state law that was considered unconstitutional
Financial Problems The National Debt was growing. We owed: a. States debts from the Revolutionary War b. Debts from the government under the Articles of Confederation c. Individual American Citizens which held bonds
The Rise and Fall of Alexander Hamilton Wanted to pay national debt by buying back bonds from the war. Wanted to pay all state debts which occurred during war. Wanted to have a protective tariff on imports Wanted to establish a national bank.
Hamilton’s Plan Proposed that the new government pay off the millions of dollars in debts Proposed to pay of state debts from war Proposed to pay off all bonds
Thomas Jefferson opinions about Hamilton’s plan Believed paying war bonds would benefit speculators and not strengthen nation. Against tariffs because benefited the north and hurt the south He felt a national bank was unconstitutional and gave to much power to the central government. Should stay on the state level!
Bonds Paper notes promising to repay the money in a certain length of time.
PEOPLE WHO RISK MONEY IN ORDER TO MAKE A LARGER PROFIT Speculator
Compromise gives us Washington D.C. To appease the Southern states, Hamilton promised that the capital of the USA would be moved to what call Washington, DC This would be a special district laid out between Maryland and Virginia. The Southern states agreed
Protective Tariff A tax on import to encourage people to buy American products. Shoes in Italy cost $2 before tariff, but $4 after tariff $2 tax will go towards government debt Benefited the northern manufacturing companies. The southern people felt that it made them suffer for the northern good.
The fight over the bank Hamilton wanted a national bank Most southern states felt that it would benefit only the wealthy Pres. Washington agreed with Hamilton and it was enacted Many felt that the bank was unconstitutional Argument will continue…..
WHISKEY REBELLION STRUGGLE IN THE WEST PROBLEMS WITH EUROPE WASHINGTON’S FAREWELL 8:2 Early Challenges
Whiskey Tax Tax on whiskey makes the cost of whiskey good up and demand goes down. Western farmers felt like it penalized them for the good of the country. Farmers rebel Washington sends out the troops to put down rebelling farmers. Results: The government will put down any social disorder for the good of the country.
Struggle over the West Native Americans deny any power over them. Spain and France encourage Native Americans to rebel over white settlement in the west.
White settlers demand western land Native Americans fight back over land in the West. George Washington sends out the troops to end the fighting between Native American and Settlers. American troops defeat Native Americans in the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Native Americans sign a peace treaty.
French Revolution “Citizens” demand their independence from King Louis the XVI Executed the King and many French Noblemen. George Washington vows to not get involved in the bloody and violent revolution.
Britain and France go to war France recruits American ships to capture British warships Britain attacks American cargo ships and impresses sailors to fight in war.
Neutrality George Washington wants to remain neutral in the European Wars. He felt that European Wars would not benefit Americans He issues the Proclamation of Neutrality which prohibited Americans from trading or fighting in the war.
John Jay Supreme Court Chief Justice went to Britain to compromise with Britain over the impressment of sailors, taking of American ships and the British troops in the Western forts.
Jay’s Treaty Great Britain to remove troops from Ohio River Valley forts Great Britain will pay back the American ships and cargo taken America will pay back old loans prior to the Revolution Americans will allow trade with some British Caribbean colonies
American’s Are Angry Don’t want to pay back old loans Did not solve issue of impressments of sailors Did not stop Britain from interfering with American trade.
Pinckney’s Treaty Treaty with Spain that gave Americans the right to use the Mississippi River for trading. Opens up the Western frontier for settlement.
Washington’s Farewell Precedents: He set a fine example of an excellent President He warns America to stay away from political parties and foreign affair wars
XYZ Affair France starts attacking ships because angry over Jay’s Treaty Adams wants to avoid war and sends a delegation to make peace with France France refuses to compromise unless given money and a loan from America Americans outraged by blackmail
“Millions for Defense but not one cent for tribute” America prepares war against France Builds up navy and army Captured over 90 French ship France backs down and makes peace with America
Alien Act Gave the president power to deport, or send aliens out of the country that he felt was dangerous. Naturalization Act: Must live in the country 14 years before applying for citizenship
Sedition Act It is a crime to speak or write any criticisms of the government, congress or the President.
State’s Rights Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions state that any state has the right to judge the constitutionality of a federal law and they could nullify, or legally overturn, a federal law if considered unconstitutional.