Presentation on theme: "Terms Used to Describe Direction and Surface TermMeaning VentralRefers to the belly or underside of a body or body part DorsalRefers to the back – also."— Presentation transcript:
Terms Used to Describe Direction and Surface TermMeaning VentralRefers to the belly or underside of a body or body part DorsalRefers to the back – also refers to the cranial surface of the manus (front of paw) and pes (rear of paw) CranialFront of the body PosteriorRear of the body RostralNose end of the head CephalicPertaining to the head CaudalToward the tail MedialToward the midline LateralAway from the midline
TermMeaning SuperiorUppermost, above, or toward the head InferiorLowermost, below or toward the tail ProximalNearest the midline or nearest to the beginning of a structure DistalFarthest from the midline or farthest from the beginning of the structure Superficial (also called external) Means near the surface Deep (also called internal)Away from the surface PalmarThe caudal surface of the manus(front paw) including the carpus PlantarThe caudal surface of the pe (rear paw) including the tarsus
Planes Imaginary lines that are used descriptively to divide the body into sections PlaneDescription Midsagittal (median and midline) Divides the body into equal right and left halves Sagittal (frontal and coronal)Divides the body into dorsal (back) and ventral (belly) parts Transverse (horizontal and/or cross-section 0plan) Divides the body into cranial and caudal parts
Planes are imaginary lines that are used descriptively to divide the body into sections. Midsagittal: the plane that divides the body into equal right and left halves. * median * midline Sagittal: the plane that divides the body into unequal right and left parts
Dorsal: the plane that divides the body into dorsal (back) and ventral (belly) parts * frontal * coronal Transverse: the plane that divides the body into cranial and caudal parts * horizontal plan * cross-sectional plan
The terms anterior, posterior, superior and inferior can be confusing when used with quadrupeds. In quadrupeds, ventral is a better term for anterior and dorsal is a better term than posterior
Study.... -ology: study of physiology: then study of body function pathology: the study of the nature, causes and development of abnormal conditions pathophysiology: the study of changes in function caused by disease etiology: the study of the cause of disease
The Mouth TermMeaning ArcadeDescribes how teeth are arranged in the mouth Lingual surfaceAspect of the tooth that faces the tongue MaxillaUpper jaw MandibleLower jaw Palatal surfaceTooth surface of the maxilla that faces the tongue Lingual surfaceThe tooth surface of the mandible that faces the tongue
TermMeaning Buccal surface (vestibular surface) Aspect of the tooth that faces the cheek Occlusal surfaceThe aspects of the teeth that meet where you chew Labial surfaceThe tooth surface facing the lips Contact surfaceThe aspects of the tooth that touch other teeth Mesial contactContact surface is the one closest to the midline of the dental arcade or arch Distal contactThe surface furthest from the midline of the dental arcade
The dental arcade is the term used to describe how teeth are arranged in the mouth. Teeth Surfaces The lingual surface is the aspect of the tooth that faces the tongue. The palatal surface is the tooth surface of the maxilla that faces the tongue and the lingual surface is the tooth surface of the mandible surface that faces the tongue.
The buccal surface is the aspect of the tooth that faces the cheek (Bucca means cheek). * sometimes called the vestibular surface (Vestibule means cavity or entrance)
The occlusal surfaces are the aspects of the teeth that meet when you chew. Hint: think of the teeth occluding, or stopping, things from passing between them when you clench the them. The labial surface is the tooth surface facing the lips. (labia means lip) Contact surfaces are divided into * mesial : the one closest to the midline of the dental arcade * distal: furthest from the midline of the dental arcade
HOLES = CAVITIES A body cavity is a hole or hollow space in the body that contains and protects organs. The cranial (crani = skull) cavity is the hollow space that contains the brain and skull. The spinal cavity is the hollow space that contains the spinal cord within the spinal column. The thoracic cavity (thorac = chest) is the hollow space that contains the heart and lungs with the ribs between the neck and diaphragm.
The abdominal cavity is the hollow space that contains the major organs of digestion located between the diaphragm and pelvic cavity. The peritoneal cavity is the hollow space within the abdominal cavity between the parietal peritoneum and the visceral peritoneum. The pelvic cavity is the hollow space that contains the reproductive and some excretory systems organs bounded by the pelvic bones.
TERMS YOU NEED TO KNOW... REGIONS Abdomen – the portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis containing the abdominal cavity. Thorax – is the chest region located between the neck and the diaphragm. Groin – the lower region of the abdomen adjacent to the thigh (also known as inguinal area)
MEMBRANES... Membranes – are thin layers of tissue that cover a surface, line a cavity or divide a space or an organ. Peritoneum – the membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities and covers some of the organs in this area. (the peritoneum maybe further divided in reference to its location) * parietal (side) peritoneum – outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities * visceral (organ) peritoneum – the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the abdominal organs.
Peritonitis – inflammation of the peritoneum ABDOMEN... Umbilicus (navel) – the pit in the abdominal wall marking the point where the umbilical cord entered the fetus. Mesentery – the layer of the peritoneum that suspends parts of the intestine in the abdominal cavity. Retroperitoneal – superficial to the peritoneum.
LYING AROUND... Recumbent – lying down Dorsal recumbency – lying on the back – also known as supine Ventral recumbency (sternal recumbency) – lying on the belly – also known as pron Left lateral recumbency – lying on the left side Right lateral recumbency – lying on the right side
Dorsal or supine Sternal or ventral Right lateral Left lateral
MOVING ALONG... Adduction – movement toward the midline Abduction – movement away from the midline Flexion – closure of a joint angle or reduction of the angle. Extension – straightening of a joint or an increase in the angle between two bones * hyperflexion and hyperextension occur when the joint is flexed or extended too far.
CELLS... Cyte = cell Ology = study of * cytology = involves studying cell origin, structure, function and pathology Prot = first Plasm = formative material of cells * protoplasm = the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus
GENES... Genetic – term used to denote something that pertains to genes or heredity. Genetic Disorder – any inherited disease or condition caused by defective genes Congenital – denotes something that is present at birth Anomaly – deviation from what is regarded as normal (used instead of defect)
Tissue... Hist/o = tissue Ology = study of * histology = the study of structure, composition and function of tissue Tissue – a group of specialized cells that are similar in structure and function
Four types of tissue: 1. epithelial (epithelium) – covers internal and external body surfaces and is made up of tightly packed cells a. Endothelium – lining of the internal organs b. Mesothelium – covering that forms the lining of serous membranes such as the peritoneum
2. Connective - adds support and structure to the body by holding the organs in place and binding body parts together Examples: bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments a. Adipose – fat (connective) 3. Muscle – contains cell material with the specialized ability to contract and relax a. Skeletal b. Smooth c. cardiac
4. Nervous - contains cells with the specialized ability to react to stimuli and conduct electrical impulses -plasia = formation, development, growth and cell numbers -Trophy = formation, development, and increase in size of tissue and cells
Anaplasia – a change in the structure of cells and their orientation to each other Aplasia – lack of development of an organ or tissue or a cell Dysplasia – abnormal growth or development of an organ or a tissue or a cell. Hyperplasia – abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ or a tissue or a cell Hypoplasia – incomplete or less than normal development of an organ or a tissue or a cell.
Neoplasm – any abnormal new growth of tissue in which multiplication of cells is uncontrolled, more rapid than normal, and progressive * usually form a distinct mass of tissue called a tumor * benign – not cancerous or not recurring * malignant – tending to spread and be life threatening (cancerous) -oma = tumor or neoplasm
Atrophy – decrease in size or complete wasting of an organ or tissue or cell Dystrophy – defective growth in the size of an organ or tissue or cell Hypertrophy – increase in the size of an organ or tissue or cell Reminder: a – without dys – bad hypo – less than normal hyper – more than normal ana – without neo – new
5.Glands: groups of specialized cells that secrete material used elsewhere in the body Aden/o = gland Exocrine gland: groups of cells that secrete their chemical substances into ducts that lead out of the body or to another organ. (sweat glands, sebaceous glands) Endocrine gland: groups of cells that secrete their chemical substances directly into the bloodstream, which transports them throughout the body. They are ductless (thyroid glands, pituitary and the portion of the pancreas that secretes insulin.
6.Organ: part of the body that performs a special function or functions.
NUMBERS Medical terms can be further modified by the use of prefixes to assign number value, numerical order, or proportions.