Presentation on theme: "Anatomical Regions, Directions, and Body Cavities"— Presentation transcript:
1 Anatomical Regions, Directions, and Body Cavities The Human BodyAnatomical Regions, Directions, and Body Cavities
2 . Describes the structures of the body Overview of AnatomyAnatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another. Describes the structures of the bodyWhat they are made ofWhere they are locatedAssociated structures
3 AnatomyGross or macroscopicMicroscopicDevelopmental
4 examines large, visible structures Gross or macroscopic anatomy,examines large, visible structuresRegional – all structures in one part of the body (body areas ).Systemic – gross anatomy of the body studied by system ( organ system)Surface – study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin (exterior features )
5 Cytology – study of the cell structure Microscopic Anatomyexamine cells and moleculesCytology – study of the cell structureHistology – study of tissues structure
6 Developmental Anatomy Traces structural changes throughout lifeEmbryology – study of developmental changes of the body before birth
7 Levels of Organization The Chemical (or Molecular) LevelAtoms are the smallest chemical unitsMolecules are a group of atoms working togetherThe Cellular LevelCells are a group of atoms, molecules, and organelles working togetherThe Tissue LevelA tissue is a group of similar cells working togetherThe Organ LevelAn organ is a group of different tissues working together
8 Levels of Organization The Organ LevelAn organ is a group of different tissues working togetherThe Organ System LevelAn organ system is a group of organs working togetherHumans have 11 organ systemsThe Organism LevelA human is an organism
9 HomeostasisHomeostasisAll body systems working together to maintain a stable internal environment Systems respond to external and internal changes to function within a normal range (body temperature, fluid balance)
10 Body PlanesAnatomic reference systems describe the location and functions of body parts. The basic reference systems are: body planes, body directions, body cavities, and structural unitsBody planes are imaginary horizontal and vertical lines used to divide the body into sectionsThe use of these planes makes it easier to describe the location of an organ or problem.
11 Body Planes Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts Midsagittal or medial – sagittal plane that lies on the midlineFrontal or coronal – divides the body into anterior and posterior partsTransverse or horizontal (cross section) – divides the body into superior and inferior partsOblique section – cuts made diagonally
13 Anatomical Regions Abdominopelvic quadrants Abdominopelvic regions Abdominopelvic quadrants. The four abdominopelvic quadrants are formedbby two perpendicular lines that intersect at the the navel.1. Right upper quadrant (RUQ)2. Left upper quadrant (LUQ)3. Right lower quadrant (RLQ)4. Left lower quadrant (LLQ)
14 Abdominopelvic regions Abdominopelvic regions The nine abdominopelvic regions provide more precise regional descriptions.1. Epigastric – above the stomach2. Umbilical – near the umbilicus or bellybutton3. Hypogastric / pelvic – below the stomach4. Hypochondriac – below the ribs5. Lumbar/Lateral – near the large bones of thespinal cord6. Iliac / inguinal – near the groin
16 The Directional TermsSuperior and inferior – toward and away from the head,respectivelyAnterior and posterior – toward the front and back of thebodyMedial, lateral, and intermediate – toward the midline,awayfrom the midline, and betweenmore medial and lateral structure. Proximal and distal – closer to and farther from theorigin of the bodySuperficial and deep – toward and away from thebody surface
18 Body Cavities Internal chambers that suspend vital organs Functions: 1. Protect delicate organs from shock and cushions them.2. Allow Internal organs to change size and shape without distorting other organs.
19 Body CavitiesDorsal BodyCavityVentral BodyCavity
20 I. Doral Body Cavity Subdivided into: 1. Cranial Cavity- contains the brain.2. Spinal Cavity- contains the spinalcord.
21 extends from the cranial cavity to the end of the vertebral column. A. Cranial CavityWithin the bony skull.Protects the brainB. Spinal Cavity..extends from the cranial cavity to the end of the vertebral column.protects the spinal cord.
22 Ventral Body CavityThe diaphragm divides this cavity into:Thoracic Cavity-A superior cavity in the chest.B. Abdominopelvic Cavity-An inferior cavity containing the organs of the abdomen and the pelvis.
23 How do the body cavities protect organs? Serous membranes line the walls of the cavities and cover the surface of the organs. Membranes secrete a fluid (serous fluid) that reduces friction within the cavity.
24 Naming the Two LayersVisceral- the layer of membrane that covers the organ.Parietal - the layer of membrane that lines the cavity.Both layers secrete a fluid that fills the space between.
25 surrounds and protects the heart. 2. Two Pleural Cavities- A. Thoracic CavityContains three internal chambers:Pericardial Cavity-surrounds and protects the heart.2. Two Pleural Cavities-surround the left and right lung .
26 1. Pericardium Made of two layers: a. Visceral pericardium- membrane covering the heart.b. Parietal pericardiummembrane on the outside.c. Pericardial Cavity- is the fluid-filled space between Made of two la
27 MediastinumThe region within the thoracic cavity between the pleural cavities.Contains the pericardium + esophagus + trachea.It is only a region and not a cavity.
28 2. Pleural Cavity Cavity around each lung. Made by the a. visceral pleurab. parietal pleura.
30 B. Abdominopelvic Cavity Divided into:1. Abdominal Cavity- superior; from diaphragm to lowest vertebra.2. Pelvic Cavity- inferior to the above; pelvic bones form wall and muscles form its floor.
31 Abdominal CavityLined by a serous membrane- peritoneum which protects the liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine and most of the large intestine.Kidneys are retroperitoneal- behind the peritoneum.
32 Peritoneum Two membranes: 1. Visceral Peritoneum- covers the organs. 2. Parietal Peritoneum- lines the abdominopelvic cavity.3. Peritoneal Cavity- is the fluid-filled space between.
33 Pelvic Cavity Inferior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity. Contains the last segments of large intestine, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs.Only the most superior organs in the pelvic cavity are covered in peritoneum (uterus, uterine tubes, ovaries, and bladder.