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Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function.

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy & Physiology Human Structure & Human Function

2 Anatomical Categories I. Microscopic Anatomy: structures not able to be seen with the naked eye. A. Cytology internal structure of individual cells B. Histology is examination of tissues II. Gross anatomy: is what is visible with naked eye. A. Surface Anatomy general form and superficial markings B. Regional Anatomy superficial and internal structures in a specific region of the body C. Systemic Anatomy structure of major organ systems

3 Physiology Categories Human phys. study of the functions of the human body Human phys. study of the functions of the human body Special phys. study of physiology of special organs Special phys. study of physiology of special organs System phys. all aspects of the functions of specific organ systems. System phys. all aspects of the functions of specific organ systems. Pathological phys. studies the effects of disease on an organ or system. Pathological phys. studies the effects of disease on an organ or system.

4 Human Structure Hierarchy of complexity –organism composed of organ systems –organ systems composed of organs –organs composed of tissues –tissues composed of cells –cells composed of organelles –organelles composed of macromolecules –macromolecules composed of molecules –molecules are composed of atoms.

5 Human Function Characteristics of life: –Homeostasis – maintain an constant internal environment. –Cellular composition – composed of cells. –Use raw materials and remove waste products –Metabolism (use energy) –Responsiveness to environment –Development (growth or differentiation) –Reproduction – the ABILITY to –Evolution – change over time

6 Major Themes Unifying principles behind all aspects of human anatomy and physiology –Cell theory: all structure & function result from the activity of cells –Homeostasis: maintaining stable conditions within the body –Evolution: the body is a product of evolution, molded by years of natural selection –Hierarchy of structure: levels of complexity –Structure determines function (and vice versa): physiology can not be separated from anatomy

7 11 Organ Systems Integumentary Integumentary Skeletal Skeletal Muscular Muscular Nervous Nervous Endocrine Endocrine Cardiovascular Cardiovascular Lymphatic Lymphatic Respiratory Respiratory Digestive Digestive Urinary Urinary Reproductive Reproductive

8 Review Questions 1. What is anatomy? 2. What is physiology? 3. Describe the organizational levels of human structure (from atom to organism). 4. Define homeostasis. 5. Explain at least five characteristics of life.

9 Directional Terms Directional terms describe the positions of structures relative to other structures or locations in the body. Superior or cranial toward the head end of the body; upper (example, the hand is part of the superior extremity). Superior or cranial toward the head end of the body; upper (example, the hand is part of the superior extremity). Inferior or caudal away from the head; lower (example, the foot is part of the inferior extremity). Inferior or caudal away from the head; lower (example, the foot is part of the inferior extremity). Anterior or ventral front (example, the kneecap is located on the anterior side of the leg). Anterior or ventral front (example, the kneecap is located on the anterior side of the leg).

10 Directional Terms (cont.) Posterior or dorsal – back (example, the shoulder blades on the posterior side of the body). Posterior or dorsal – back (example, the shoulder blades on the posterior side of the body). Medial - toward the midline of the body (example, the middle toe is located at the medial side of the foot). Medial - toward the midline of the body (example, the middle toe is located at the medial side of the foot). Lateral - away from the midline of the body (example, the little toe is located at the lateral side of the foot). Lateral - away from the midline of the body (example, the little toe is located at the lateral side of the foot). Proximal - toward or nearest the trunk or the point of origin of a part (example, the proximal end of the femur joins with the pelvic bone). Proximal - toward or nearest the trunk or the point of origin of a part (example, the proximal end of the femur joins with the pelvic bone). Distal - away from or farthest from the trunk or the point or origin of a part (example, the hand is located at the distal end of the forearm). Distal - away from or farthest from the trunk or the point or origin of a part (example, the hand is located at the distal end of the forearm).

11 Medical professionals often refer to sections of the body in terms of anatomical planes (flat surfaces). These planes are imaginary lines - vertical or horizontal - drawn through an upright body. The terms are used to describe a specific body part. BODY PLANES

12 Coronal Plane (Frontal Plane) A vertical plane running from side to side; divides the body or any of its parts into anterior and posterior portions. Coronal Plane (Frontal Plane) A vertical plane running from side to side; divides the body or any of its parts into anterior and posterior portions. Sagittal Plane (Lateral Plane) A vertical plane running from front to back; divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sides. Sagittal Plane (Lateral Plane) A vertical plane running from front to back; divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sides. Axial Plane (Transverse Plane) A horizontal plane; divides the body or any of its parts into upper and lower parts. Axial Plane (Transverse Plane) A horizontal plane; divides the body or any of its parts into upper and lower parts. Median plane Sagittal plane through the midline of the body; divides the body or any of its parts into right and left halves. Median plane Sagittal plane through the midline of the body; divides the body or any of its parts into right and left halves.

13 Body Regions Upper Limb – arm and forearm Upper Limb – arm and forearm Lower Limb – thigh and leg Lower Limb – thigh and leg Central – head, neck and trunk Central – head, neck and trunk

14 Body Cavities The cavities, or spaces, of the body contain the internal organs, or viscera. The two main cavities are called the ventral and dorsal cavities. The ventral is the larger cavity and is subdivided into two parts (thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities) by the diaphragm, a dome-shaped respiratory muscle.

15 Body Cavities External: Cranial – the skull cavity Cranial – the skull cavity Thoracic – surrounds by the ribs Thoracic – surrounds by the ribs Vertebral – area around vertebral column Vertebral – area around vertebral column Abdominal – bounded by abdominal muscles. Abdominal – bounded by abdominal muscles. Pelvic – enclosed by pelvic bones Pelvic – enclosed by pelvic bonesInternal: Pericardial – surrounds the heart Pericardial – surrounds the heart Pleural – surrounds the lungs Pleural – surrounds the lungs Peritoneal – small cavity w/in the abdominal/pelvic cavities Peritoneal – small cavity w/in the abdominal/pelvic cavities

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17 Thoracic cavity The upper ventral, thoracic, or chest cavity contains the heart, lungs, trachea, esophagus, large blood vessels, and nerves. The thoracic cavity is bound laterally by the ribs (covered by costal pleura) and the diaphragm caudally (covered by diaphragmatic pleura). Thoracic cavity The upper ventral, thoracic, or chest cavity contains the heart, lungs, trachea, esophagus, large blood vessels, and nerves. The thoracic cavity is bound laterally by the ribs (covered by costal pleura) and the diaphragm caudally (covered by diaphragmatic pleura). Abdominal and pelvic cavity The lower part of the ventral (abdominopelvic) cavity can be further divided into two portions: abdominal portion and pelvic portion. The abdominal cavity contains most of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the kidneys and adrenal glands. The abdominal cavity is bound cranially by the diaphragm, laterally by the body wall, and caudally by the pelvic cavity. The pelvic cavity contains most of the urogenital system as well as the rectum. The pelvic cavity is bounded cranially by the abdominal cavity, dorsally by the sacrum, and laterally by the pelvis. Abdominal and pelvic cavity The lower part of the ventral (abdominopelvic) cavity can be further divided into two portions: abdominal portion and pelvic portion. The abdominal cavity contains most of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the kidneys and adrenal glands. The abdominal cavity is bound cranially by the diaphragm, laterally by the body wall, and caudally by the pelvic cavity. The pelvic cavity contains most of the urogenital system as well as the rectum. The pelvic cavity is bounded cranially by the abdominal cavity, dorsally by the sacrum, and laterally by the pelvis. Dorsal cavity The smaller of the two main cavities is called the dorsal cavity. As its name implies, it contains organs lying more posterior in the body. The dorsal cavity, again, can be divided into two portions. The upper portion, or the cranial cavity, houses the brain, and the lower portion, or vertebral canal houses the spinal cord. Dorsal cavity The smaller of the two main cavities is called the dorsal cavity. As its name implies, it contains organs lying more posterior in the body. The dorsal cavity, again, can be divided into two portions. The upper portion, or the cranial cavity, houses the brain, and the lower portion, or vertebral canal houses the spinal cord.


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