Presentation on theme: "Body Planes, Directions, and Cavities JAMES VALLEY VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL CENTER."— Presentation transcript:
Body Planes, Directions, and Cavities JAMES VALLEY VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL CENTER
Body Planes, Directions, and Cavities
Body Planes: Definition = imaginary lines drawn through the body to separate the body into sections Refer to as any slice or cut through a 3 dimensional structure What diagnostic exams use this technique?
Sagittal Plane Divides the body or organ vertically into right and left unequal parts– words used with this plane include: Medial = body parts located near the middle or midline of the body Lateral = body parts located away from the midline or middle of the body Proximal = body parts close to the point of reference Distal = body parts away from the point of reference
Midsagittal Plane: Divides the body vertically into EQUAL right and left sides 1. Medial = body parts located near the middle or midline of the body 2. Lateral = body parts located away from the midline or middle of the body
Frontal or Coronal Plane: Divides the body into front and back section. 1. Anterior = body parts on the front of the body 2. Posterior = body parts on the back of the body
Transverse Plane: Horizontal plane dividing the body into a top and bottom half 1. Superior = body parts above other parts 2. Inferior = body parts below other parts
Body Directions Superior – upper or above Inferior- lower or below Anterior or ventral- in front of Posterior- after or behind medial- toward the midline- middle Lateral – toward the side – away from midline Proximal-toward the truck – near point of attachment
Body Directions Distal-away from origin or point of attachment Dorsal- near the upper surface- toward the neck Ventral- towrd the bottom- toward the belly Cranial-refers to the head Caudal – means tail Internal- inside the body
Body Cavities: Spaces within the body which contain vital organs Protect organs from shocks and bumps Permit expansion and contraction without disrupting other organs
Posterior or Dorsal Cavity: One long continuous cavity that is located on the back of the body, divided into two sections Surrounds the brain and spinal cord 1. Cranial Cavity = contains the brain 2. Spinal Cavity = contains the spinal cord
Anterior or Ventral Cavity: Larger and separated into two distinct cavities -- the chest and abdomen- by a dome-shaped muscle called the diaphragm, which is important for breathing 1. Thoracic Cavity = located in the chest, contains the heart, lungs, and the large blood vessels 2. Abdominopelvic
2. Abdominal Cavity = divided into upper and lower parts Upper part contains the stomach, small intestines, most of the large intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen 3. Pelvic Cavity = lower abdominal cavity containing urinary bladder, the reproductive organs, and last part of the large intestines
Abdominal Regions: Quadrants 1. Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) 2. Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ) 3. Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ) 4. Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
Abdominal Regions: Epigastric- –above the stomach Umbilical belly button or umbilicus Hypogastric or pelvic – below the stomach Hypochondriac –below the ribs Lumbar –Near the large bones of the spinal cord Iliac or Inguinal –Near the groin
Sooooooo…….What if…. You have a patient that has gangrene in the lower portion of their leg and you need to amputate….. You would make a ________________ cut through the leg. The abdominal muscles and muscles of the back are separated by the _______________ plane.
OK, sooooo……. 1.Which cavity is the heart found in? 2.Which cavity contains the spinal cord? 3.Which cavity contains the ovaries? 4.Which cavity contains the lungs? 5.Which cavity consists of the abdominopelvic and thoracic cavities? 6. Which cavity contains the cranial and spinal/vertrebral cavities?
Abdominal Quadrants and Regions
Superior vs Inferior The forehead is ________ to the nose. The lips are _________ to the chin. The heart is _________ to the liver. The umbilicus is ______ to the breastbone The knee is ____ to the hip The stomach is ______ to the lungs
Anterior vs Posterior The breatbone is _______ to the spine Your front teeth are ______ to your back teeth. The esophagus is _______ to the trachea The spine is _______ to the heart
Medial vs Lateral The nose is _______ to the ears. The lungs are ______ to the heart.
Proximal vs Distal The elbow is ______ to the wrist The femur is ______ to the tibia The knee is _____ to the thigh The fingers are_______ to the elbow
Superficial Vs Deep The skin is _________ to the muscles The epidermis is__________ to the dermis The organs are ____ in relation to the skin Sinuses are ________ in relation to the nose