Presentation on theme: "Organization of the Body"— Presentation transcript:
1 Organization of the Body Chapter 4Organization of the Body
2 Identify parts of a cell and the specialized functions of tissues Identify the body systemsDescribe the functions of the body system and how they workDefine the anatomical positions of the bodyList the body cavities and the organsIdentify nine body regions
3 Organization of the Human Body The body is organized from the smallest part to the largest part.CELL-simplest structural unit-basic unit of life-smallest unit that can live on its own
4 Cell Many cannot be seen with the naked eye A cell may be an entire organism or it may be one of billions of cells that make up the organism
5 Tissue- a group of cells with common origin, structure, and function.- cells within a tissue all work toward a common goal (i.e.: movement, nutrition, etc.)Organ- a group of tissues that have a common function.
6 Structural units of the body: Cell: Body has million of cells that work together to sustain lifeconsist of a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasmIt is the fundamental unit of all living things (basic building block)Cells multiply by dividing called mitosis
7 Contd: Several types of cells Size and shape of cell relates its functionExamples of some cells in the body:Muscle cells: contractNerve: conduct electrical impulsesEpithelial: skin and liningFat cell: contain empty spaces to store fat
8 Nucleus A spheroid body within a cell Consists of a thin nuclear membrane and genes and chromosomesResponsible for metabolism, growth and reproductionControl center of the cell
9 Chromosomes Thread like structures in the cell nucleus Control growth and repairControl the reproduction of the bodyContain regions of DNA called genesThere are 23 pairs of chromosomes in every cell except for the egg and sperm which contain 23 unpaired chromosomes
10 CytoplasmThe substance between the cell membrane and the nuclear membraneJelly like material that is mostly waterIt is exclusive to the nucleusCarries on the work of the cell
11 Cell membraneThin layer of tissue which serves as the wall of the cellProtects the cellSelectively allows substances to pass in and out of the cell
12 Tissues: groups of similar cells working together to do a specific job For example:Muscle tissue contractsEpithelial tissue forms linings and covers i.e. skinConnective tissue do just that: fat, cartilage, bone and bloodNerve tissues conduct impulses all over the body
13 Tissue Epithelial tissues The skin and lining surfacesForms the lining of the internal organsIt protects, absorbs and excretes
14 Connective tissue The fibrous tissue of the body Binds together the various parts and organs of the bodyEg: bones , tendons cartilage
15 Muscle tissue Tissue that contracts Consist of striated (striped) cardiac and smooth muscleVoluntary is where the movement is under conscious control such as arms and legsInvoluntary is not under conscious control, such as heart and digestive system
16 Nerve TissueA collection of nerve fibers that conduct impulses that control and coordinate body activities
17 Organ System- a group of organs with a special function.- Digestive System, Nervous System, etc…Organism- A group of organ systems that at some point in time is capable of sustaining life.- All organ systems work together in an organism.
18 Organs: structures composed of several types of tissue An organ (Latin: organum, "instrument, tool") is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions.Usually there is a main tissue and sporadic tissues. The main tissue is the one that is unique for the specific organ.For example, main tissue in the heart is the myocardium, while sporadic are the nervous, blood, connective etc.
19 A set of body organs that work together for a common purpose Systems:A set of body organs that work together for a common purpose
20 systems Integumentary system Musculoskeletal system Cardiovascular systemGastrointestinal systemRespiratory systemGenitourinary systemEndocrine system’Nervous system
21 Body Cavity: space within the body that contains internal organs The human body consists of the following cavities:dorsal body cavitycranial cavity, enclosed by the Skull and contains the brain, eyes, and ears.spinal canal, enclosed by the spine and contains the spinal cord.ventral body cavitythoracic cavity, enclosed by the ribcage and contains the lungs and heart.abdominopelvic cavityabdominal cavity, enclosed by the ribcage and pelvis and contains the kidneys, ureters, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas./pelvic cavity, enclosed by the pelvis and contains bladder, anus and reproductive system.
22 Body cavities and Planes The body has two main large cavitiesVentral = front of body includes thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavityDorsal = back of body which includes Cranial and Spinal cavity
23 Anatomical PlanesFixed lines of reference along which the body is often divided or sectioned to facilitate viewing of its structuresAllow one to obtain a three-dimensional perspective by studying the body from different views
24 SagittalA plane that divides the body into right and left portionsMidsagittalA plane that vertically divides the body or some part of it, into equal right and left portions
25 CoronalAlso called frontal; a plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior sections (front and back)TransverseA plane that divides the body into superior and inferior sections (top and bottom)
26 Anatomical Position Standing erect, with palms and feet facing forward Is the standard reference point in which all positions, movements, and planes are described
27 Positions and Directions Terms of position and direction describe the position of one body part relative to another, usually along one of the three major body planes
28 Positions and Directions SuperiorRefers to a structure being closer to the head or higher than another structure in the bodyInferiorRefers to a structure being closer to the feet or lower than another structure in the body
29 Positions and Directions AnteriorRefers to a structure being more in front than another structure in the bodyPosteriorRefers to a structure being more in back than another structure in the body
30 Positions and Directions MedialRefers to a structure being closer to the midline or median plane of the body than another structure of the bodyLateralRefers to a structure being farther away from the midline than another structure of the body
31 Positions and Directions DistalRefers to a structure being further away from the root of the limb than another structure in the limbProximalRefers to a structure being closer to the root of the limb than another structure in that limbRootRoot