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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL UNITS CHAPTER 1 Body Structures and"— Presentation transcript:

HUMAN BODY IN HEALTH AND DISEASE Chapter 2 Medical Terminology Body Structures Text book chapter one. Pages 1-7 Exercise: Review questions Body Structures Workbook chapter one. Pages 1 – 11 Exercise: D,F,G Medical Term book chapter two. Pages 26 – 41. Exercises: 1 – 100 Show Delmar Movie 2 “Organization of the body”

Used to describe location/function of body parts Include: Body Planes Body Directions Body Cavities Structural Units Anatomy and Physiology Defined Anatomy: the study of the structures of the body Physiology: the study of the function of the structures of the body Divisions, planes, directions, and sections are all on Test One.

The body is described based on this position – especially in RADIOLOGY ERECT – in the standing position FACING FORWARD WITH ARMS AT SIDES HANDS WITH PALMS TOWARD THE FRONT (SUPINATED)

4 BODY PLANES Imaginary horizontal and vertical lines used to divide the body into sections for descriptive purposes Vertical Planes Up-and-down line at a right angle to the horizon Midsagittal plane: AKA midline – vertical plane that divides the body, from top to bottom, into equal left and right halves Sagittal plane: any vertical plane parallel to the midline that divides the body into unequal left and right portions Coronal plane: AKA frontal plane – (coron = head or crown/ al = pertaining to) any vertical plane, at right angles to the sagittal plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions


6 Horizontal Planes Flat crosswise line like the horizon
Transverse plane: AKA horizontal plane – divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions Can be at waist or any other level of the body



9 Body Directions Relative location of the whole body or an organ is described through the use of pairs of contrasting body direction terms Ventral: front/belly side of body or organ – abdomen Dorsal: back of body or organ – spine Anterior: situated in front – also means forward part of an organ – stomach is anterior to the pancreas Posterior: situated in the back – also means on the back part of an organ – pancreas is located posterior to the stomach Superior: uppermost, above, or toward the head – lungs are superior to the diaphragm Inferior: lowermost, below, or toward the feet – stomach is located inferior to the diaphragm

10 Body Directions - continued
Cephalic: means toward the head Caudal: means toward the lower part of the body (feet) Proximal: situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure – the shoulder is proximal to the elbow Distal: situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure - Elbow is distal to the shoulder Medial: direction toward or nearer the midline – spine Lateral: direction toward or nearer the side and away from the midline – lateral ligament of knee is near the side of the leg Bilateral: relating to, or having, two sides



13 Major Body Cavities A space within the body that contains and protects the internal organs Dorsal Cavity divided into two parts, protects the structures of the nervous system that coordinate the bodily functions Cranial Cavity: located within the skull, protects the brain Spinal Cavity: located within the spinal column, protects the spinal cord Ventral Cavity Divided into three parts, contains many of the body organs that maintain homeostasis Thoracic Cavity: AKA Chest Cavity – protects the heart and lungs Diaphragm: muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities Abdominal Cavity: contains primarily the major organs of digestion Pelvic Cavity: the space formed by the pelvic (hip) bones – contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems Abdominopelvic Cavity: there is no division btwn. the abdominal and pelvic cavities HOMEOSTASIS: maintaining a constant internal environment




17 Divisions of the Abdomen
The abdomen is divided into four imaginary quadrants – meaning divided into 4 (used to describe where organ or pain is located) Right Upper Quadrant – (RUQ) Left Upper Quadrant – (LUQ) Right Lower Quadrant – (RLQ) Left Lower Quadrant – (LLQ)


19 Regions of the Thorax and Abdomen
Used for descriptive purposes also, nine regions divide abdomen and lower portion of the thorax Right and left hypochondriac regions: (Hypochondriac = means below the ribs) – also means individual with an abnormal and excessive concern about his or her health Epigastric Region: (Epigastric = means above the stomach) Right and left Lumbar Regions: (Lumbar = refers to the inward curve of the spine) Umbilical Region: (Umbilical = refers to the umbilicus AKA belly button/navel – the pit in the center of the abdominal wall marking the point where the umbilical cord was attached to the fetus Right and left Iliac Regions: (Iliac = refers to the hip bone) Hypogastric Region: (Hypogastric = means below the stomach) – the entire lower region of the abdomen is also referred to as the groin or inguinal area


21 Peritoneum Peritoneum: the membrane that protects and supports (suspends in place) the organs located in the abdominal cavity Parietal Peritoneum: the outer layer of this membrane that lines the abdominal cavity Visceral Peritoneum: the inner layer of this membrane that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity Visceral: means relating to the internal organs (those enclosed within a cavity) especially the abdominal organs Mesentery: a layer of the peritoneum that suspends parts of the intestine within the abdominal cavity Retroperitoneal: means located behind the peritoneum of the abdominal cavity Peritonitis: inflammation of the peritoneum Ascites: an abnormal accumulation of clear or milky serous (watery) fluid in the peritoneal cavity


23 Laparoscopic Procedures
Laparoscopy: the visual examination of the interior of the abdomen with the use of a laparoscope Laparoscopic surgery involves the use of a laparoscope plus instruments inserted into the abdomen through small incisions – used to Explore and examine the interior of the abdomen Take specimens to be biopsied Perform surgical procedures (i.e. - gastric by-pass)


25 ENDOSCOPY Visualization through a body opening such as the mouth or nose.

26 ARTHROSCOPY Visualization into a joint.


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