Presentation on theme: "Standard The learner will be able to define anatomy, gross anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. The learner will be able to explain the relationship."— Presentation transcript:
1 StandardThe learner will be able to define anatomy, gross anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology.The learner will be able to explain the relationship between cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.The learner will be able to define body planes, directional terms, quadrants, and cavities.
2 The human body is an efficient, organized machine. Disease occurs when the machine does not function correctly.Health care workers must understand normal function of the body before understanding the disease process.
3 Vocabularyanatomy -The study of the form and structure of an organism.gross anatomy - The study of the organs, parts, and structures of a body that are visible to the naked eye.physiology - The study of the processes of living organisms, or how and why they work.pathophysiology - The study of how disease occurs and response of the body to disease process.
4 cell -The basic unit of structure and function in all living things. organelle - A differentiated structure within a cell that performs a specific function.tissue - A group of similar cells acting together to perform one or more specific functions in the body. There are four basic types of tissue.
5 Epithelial TissueCovers the surface of the body and main tissue in skin.Forms lining of intestinal, respiratory and urinary tract, and other body cavities.Forms body glands
6 Connective Tissue Soft Connective Tissue 2 types Adipose/Fatty Tissue Stores fat as a reserve source of energyInsulates/provides paddingFibrous TissueLigaments/TendonsHelp keep body structuretogether
8 Nerve Tissue Made of special cells called neurons Transmit messages throughout the bodyMake up nerves, brain, and spinal cord
9 Muscle Tissue Produces power and movement by contraction of muscle fibers Three Main Types Skeletal: attaches to bone and provides movement.Cardiac: causes the heart to beat.Visceral (smooth): in walls of many organs such as digestive tract and blood vessels.
10 organ -Two or more tissues join together for a specific function. Examples: heart, stomach, lungsorgan system -Organs and other parts join together for a particular function.Examples: integumentary, skeletal, muscular, circulatory, lymphatic, nervous, respiratory, digestive, urinary or excretory, endocrine, and reproductive
12 SummaryCell: Basic unit if structure and function of all living thingsCells combine to form tissues4 Tissue types: Epithelial. Connective (soft and hard), Nerve, Muscle (skeletal, cardiac, visceral)Tissues combine to form organsOrgans combine to form organ systems (integumentary,skeletal, muscular, circulatory, lymphatic, nervous, respiratory, digestive, urinary, endocrine, and reproductive)Systems work together to create the miracle of the human body
14 anatomical position - The standard anatomical reference point is the body position in which the trunk is erect or straight with the arms and feet slightly apart with palms facing forward and the thumbs pointing away from the body.
15 body plane - An imaginary flat surface that divides the body or a part of the body into two parts; the standard perspectives for such sections in anatomical imaging are the sagittal, frontal, and transverse (cross) sections.
16 sagittal planeThe median (mid-sagittal) plane passes vertically through the middle of the body, dividing it equally into left and right halves.
17 frontal planeA flat vertical plane passing through the body from side to side, dividing it into anterior (front) and posterior (back) halves.
18 transverse planeA plane passing horizontally through the body, dividing it into upper and lower halves or (superior & inferior).
25 Two other directional terms you need to know are proximal and distal. Body parts close to a reference point are said to be proximal. (Think of the word approximate, near, close.)Body parts further from a reference point are said to be distal. (Think of the word distance, far.)
26 Example: If our point of reference is the shoulder, and we want to describe the relationships of the wrist and elbow, we can say that the wrist is distal and the elbow is proximal.Shoulder – point of referenceElbow – proximal (nearer, closer)Wrist – distal (further)
27 Contralateral – on the opposite side Ipsilateral – on the same sideExample: My appendix is ipsilateral to my ascending colon, but it is contralateral to my descending colon.Descending ColonAscending ColonAPPENDIX