2 C. BODY SYSTEMS 1H03.01 Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy studies the shape an structure of an organisms body and the relationship of one body part to another.Physiology studies the function of each body part and how the functions of the various body parts coordinate to form a complete living organism.For our purposes in this unit it is the study of directions, positions, planes, sections, cavities, and abdominal and pelvic regions.
3 Directions/PositionAnatomical PositionAnterior and ventral front or in front ofPosterior or dorsal back or in back ofCranial and caudal cranial:head endcaudal: tail endSuperior and inferior superior: upper or aboveinferior: lower or belowMedial and lateral medial: toward the midlinelateral: away from midlineProximal and distal proximal: toward the trunkdistal: farthest from trunkSuperficial or external on or near the surface of bodyDeep or internal inside or about a body cavity
4 Planes and SectionsSagittal plane divides the body into right and left parts Coronal (frontal) plane a vertical cut at right angles to the sagittal plane, dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions. Transverse (cross section) a horizontal cut that divides the body into upper and lower parts.
5 CavitiesDorsal cavity – contains the brain and spinal cavity Cranial cavity – where the brain is located Spinal cavity – thoracic cavity Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, small intestine, appendix, and part of the large intestine. Pelvic cavity – urinary bladder, reproductive organs, rectum, remainder of the large intestine, and the appendix.
6 Abdominal/Pelvic Regions Epigastric – located just below the sternum (breast bone), and the right hypochondriac and the left hypochondriac regions are located below the ribs.Umbilical – located around the naval or umbilicus, and the right lumbar region and the left lumbar region extend from anterior to posterior. ( A person will complain of back pain or lumbar sprain.)Hypogastric – the pubic area
7 Nine regions of Abdominal Area Right HypochondriacEpigastricLeft HypochondriacRight LumbarUmbilicalLeft LumbarRight InguinalHypogastricLeft Inguinal
8 1H03.02 Body Tissues and Membranes -Epithelial tissue-Connective Tissue*adipose*cartilage*tendons*ligaments-Muscle Tissue-Nervous Tissue
9 TISSUES Connective Tissue- supports and connects organs and tissue Epithelial Tissue – protects the body by covering internal and external surfacesConnective Tissue- supports and connects organs and tissueMuscle Tissue – has the ability to contract and move the bodyNervous Tissue – cells that react to stimuli and conduct an impulseAdipose Tissue– type of connective tissue that stores fat cellsLigaments– strong, flexible bands of connective tissue that hold bones firmly together at the joints (bone to bone)Tendons – white bands of connective tissue attaching skeletal muscle to bone (muscle to bone)Cartilage – firm, flexible support of the embryonic skeleton and part of the adult skeleton
10 TISSUESMEMBRANES – formed by putting two thin layers of tissue together, cells may secrete a fluidMUCOUS MEMBRANES– lines digestive, respiratory, reproductive and urinary systems – produces mucous to lubricate and protect the lining
11 TISSUESSEROUS MEMBRANES – double-walled membrane - produces a watery fluid, lines closed body cavities1. the outer part of the membrane that lines the cavity is the PARIETAL membrane2. the part that covers the organs is the VISCERAL membrane.PLEURAL MEMBRANE – lines thoracic or chest cavity and protects the lungsPERICARDIAL MEMBRANE – lines the heart cavity and protects the heartPERITONEAL MEMBRANE – lines the abdominal cavity and protects abdominal organs
12 ORGANS AND SYSTEMSORGAN SYSTEM – a group of organs which act together to perform a specific, related function· Integumentary· Skeletal· Muscular· Digestive· Respiratory· Circulatory· Excretory· Nervous· Endocrine· Reproductive