3Main organs involved in the respiratory system: Nose/mouthPharynxLarynxTracheaBronchiAlveoli (within lungs)Lungs
4Nasal Cavity Anterior Nares = nostrils Nasal Septum = cartilage which divides nasal cavities into right and left sidesTurbinates are bones that protrude into the nasal cavity – they increase the surface area for filtering dust and dirt particles by the mucous membranesCilia – the hairs in the nose; trap larger dirt particles
5Sinuses:Cavities in the skull, ducts connect them to the nasal cavity, lined with mucous membranes to warm and moisten airFrontalMaxillaryEthmoidSphenoidSinuses give resonance to the voice.
6PharynxThe throatCommon passageway for air and food5” longDivided into:NasopharynxOropharynxLaryngopharynxWhen food is swallowed, the epiglottis closes over the opening to the larynx, preventing food from entering the lungs.
7Larynx Voice box Triangular chamber below the pharynx Within the larynx are vocal cords (glottis)Adam’s Apple
8Trachea Windpipe 4 ½” long Walls are alternate bands of membrane and C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage – to keep trachea openLined with ciliated mucous membranesCoughing and expectoration gets rid of dust-laden mucous
9Bronchi and bronchioles Lower end of trachea divides into R and L bronchusAs they enter lungs, subdivide into bronchial tubes and bronchiolesBronchi – similar to trachea with ciliated mucous membrane and hyaline cartilage
10Bronchial tubes – cartilaginous plates (instead of C-shaped rings) Bronchioles – thinner walls of smooth muscle, lined with ciliated epitheliumAt the end, alveolar ducts and cluster of alveoli
11Alveoli Composed of a single layer of epithelial tissue Inner surfaces covered with surfactant – to keep alveoli from collapsingEach alveolus surrounded by capillariesO2 and CO2 exchange takes place between the alveoli and capillaries (diffusion)
12Lungs Fill thoracic cavity Separated by mediastinum and heart Upper part = apexLower part = baseBase fits snugly over diaphragmLung tissue porous and spongy – it floatsR lung = larger and shorter (displaced by the liver) and has 3 lobesL lung = smaller (displaced by heart) and has 2 lobes
13DiaphragmLarge dome-shaped muscle that contracts rhythmically, continually, and most of the time, involuntarily.
14Pleura Thin, moist slippery membrane that covers the lungs Double-walled sacSpace is pleural cavity – filled with pleural fluid to prevent friction
15Mediastinum Interpleural space Contains Thymus gland Heart (and aorta) Pulmonary arteries and veinsSuperior and inferior vena cavaEsophagusTracheaThoracic ductLymph nodes and vessels
16Functions of the Respiratory System External, internal, and cellular respirationProduction of sound (vocal cords)
17Oxygen is the MOST critical substance needed by the body for survival. We can only live about 4-6 minutes without oxygen.Arterial blood = 21% O2Venous blood = 16% (5% loss per cycle)
18Clinical death – the moment breathing and heartbeat stop Biological death – when brain cells die, irreversible after 6 – 10 minutes
19Constant removal of carbon dioxide is just as important for survival – maintains homeostasis 2
20Pulmonary Ventilation (Breathing) InspirationIntercostal muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward – this increases the volume of the lungs and air rushes inExpirationOpposite action takes placeExhalation is a passive process
21Respiratory Movements 1 inspiration + 1 expiration = 1 respirationNormal adult = 14 – 20 respirations / minAge dependent - newborn = 40 – 60 / minIncreases with exercise, body temperature, certain diseasesSleep = respirations ↓Emotion can ↑ or ↓
22Lung Capacity and Volume Spirometer – device that measures lung capacityTidal Volume – amount of air that moves in and out of lungs with each breath.Normal = 500 mLResidual Volume – amount of air left in lungs that cannot be voluntarily expelled
23Hyperventilation –Rapid breathing causes body to lose CO2 too quickly, blood CO2 decreases which leads to alkalosisSymptoms – dizziness and possible faintingRx – have person breathe into a paper bag
24Maintaining Transmission-Based Isolation Precautions A communicable disease is caused by a pathogenic organism that can be easily transmitted to others
25An epidemic occurs when the communicable disease spreads rapidly from person to person and affects a large number of people at the same time
26A pandemic exists when the outbreak of disease occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a high proportion of the population
27Maintaining Transmission-Based Isolation Precautions Transmission-based isolation precautions are methods or techniques of caring for patients who have communicable diseasesExamples of communicable diseases include:TuberculosisWound infectionsPertussis (whooping cough)
28Transmission-Based Isolation Precautions The type of transmission-based isolation depends on the causative organism of the disease, the way the organism is transmitted and whether the pathogen is antibiotic resistant.Personal protective equipment (PPE) is used to provide protection from the pathogen.Some transmission-based isolation require the use of gowns, gloves, face shields and masks, while others only require the use of a mask.
29What’s the difference between standard precautions and isolation precautions? Standard precautions are used on all patients, while transmission-based isolation techniques are used to provide extra protection against specific diseases or pathogens to prevent their spread Vs.
30Airborne PrecautionsUsed for patients known or suspected to be infected with pathogens transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei, where the droplets contain microorganisms and remain suspended in the air.Examples of diseases requiring isolation include rubella (measles), varicella (chicken pox), and tuberculosis.
31Airborne Precautions (cont.) The patient must be placed in a private room, and the door must be kept closed.Air in the room must be discharged to outdoor air or filtered before being circulated to other areas.Each person must wear a mask that contains special filter to prevent the entrance of small airborne pathogens.If at all possible, the patient should not be moved from the room. If transport is essential, the patient should wear a surgical mask during transport to minimize the release of droplets into the air.
32Droplet PrecautionsMust be followed for a patient known or suspected to be infected with pathogens transmitted by large droplets expelled during coughing, sneezing, talking or laughing.Examples of diseases requiring these isolation precautions include diphtheria, pertussis, adenovirus, mumps and severe cases of viral influenza, meningitis and pneumonia.
33Droplet Precautions (cont.) The patient should be placed in a private room. If a private room is not available, the patient can be placed in a room with another patient who has the same infection at least 3 feet away from other patients or visitors.Masks must be worn when working within 3 feet of the patient.If the patients has to be transported, they must wear a surgical mask.
34Contact PrecautionsMust be followed for any patients known or suspected to be infected with epidemiologically microorganisms that can be transmitted by either direct or indirect contact.Examples of diseases requiring this type of isolation include any gastrointestinal, respiratory, skin, or wound infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms; any highly contagious skin infection; and viral or hemorrhagic conjunctivitis or fevers.
35Contact Precautions (cont.) The patient should be placed in a private room.Gloves must be worn when entering the room.Gloves must be changed after having contact with material that may contain high concentrations of the microorganisms, such as wound drainage or fecal material.Gloves must be removed before leaving the room, and the hands must be wash with an antimicrobial agent.A gown must be worn in the room if there is any chance of contact with the patient, environmental surfaces or items in the room. The gown must be removed before leaving the room and care must be taken to ensure that clothing is not contaminated after gown removal.
36Contact Precautions (cont.) Movement and transport of the patient from the room should be for essential purposes only.The room and items in it must receive daily cleaning and disinfection as needed.If possible, patient-care equipment (bedside commode, stethoscope, thermometer) should be left in the room and used only for this patient. If not, all equipment must be cleaned and disinfected before being used on another patient.
37Reverse Isolation Precautions Used to protect patients from organisms present in the environment.Examples of patients requiring this isolation include patients whose immune systems have been depressed prior to receiving transplants, severely burned patients, patients receiving chemotherapy or radiation treatments, or patients whose immune systems have failed.
38Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Asthma- a respiratory disorder usually caused by a sensitivity to an allergen such as dust, pollen, an animal, medications or a type of food
39Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Bronchitis- an inflammation of the bronchi and bronchial tubes
40Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)- any chronic lung disease that results in obstruction of the airways
41Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Emphysema- a noninfectious, chronic respiratory condition that occurs when the walls of the alveoli deteriorate and lose their elasticity.
42Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Epistaxis- also known as a nosebleed, occurs when capillaries in the nose become congested and bleed
43Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Influenza (flu)- a highly contagious viral infection of the upper respiratory system
44Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Laryngitis- an inflammation of the larynx and vocal cords
45Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Lung Cancer- is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women.It is a preventable disease because the main cause is exposure to carcinogens in tobacco, either through smoking or through exposure to “second-hand” smoke
46Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Pleurisy- an inflammation of the pleura, or membranes, of the lungsUsually occurs with pneumonia or other lung infections
47Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Pneumonia- an inflammation or infection of the lungs characterized by exudate ( a buildup of fluid) in the alveoli.
48Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Rhinitis- an inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane, resulting in a runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing, soreness and congestion.
49Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Sinusitis- an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the sinuses
50Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Sleep Apnea- a condition in which an individual stops breathing while asleep, causing a measurable decrease in blood oxygen levelsTwo types of Sleep ApneaObstructive Sleep ApneaCentral Sleep Apnea
51Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Tuberculosis (TB)- an infectious lung disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
52Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Upper Respiratory Infection (URI)- or common cold, is an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the upper respiratory tract
53Related Health Careers InternistOtolaryngologistPerfusionistPulmonologistRespiratory TherapistRespiratory Therapy TechnicianThoracic Surgeon
54Medical Terminology Root Word(s): Rhin(o)- denotes the nose Rhinodynia- pain in the noseRhinolith- stone or rock in the noseRhinorrhagia- excessive discharge of blood in the noseRhinitis- inflammation of the noseRhinomycosis- disease condition of fungus in the nose
55Medical Terminology Root Word(s): Pneumon(o); pneum(ato); pneum(a)- denotes the lungPneumonitis- inflammation in the lungPneumonography- to record the lungPneumoconiosis- disease condition of dust in the lungPneumothorax- chest cavity in the lungPneumocentesis- surgical puncture in the lung
56Medical Terminology Root Word(s): Trache(o)- denotes the trachea Tracheotomy- surgical removal of the tracheaTracheoplasty- surgical repair of the tracheaTracheopathy- disease condition in the tracheaTracheorrhaphy- to suture the tracheaTracheitis- inflammation in the trachea
57Medical Terminology Root Word(s): Laryng(o)- denotes larynx Laryngitis- inflammation of the larynxLaryngeal- pertaining to the larynxLaryngostenosis- abnormal hardening of the larynxLaryngoscope- visual examination of the larynxLaryngocentesis- surgical puncture of the larynx
58Medical Terminology Root Word(s): Thorac(o)- denotes the thorax Thoracodynia- pain in the thoraxThoracentesis- surgical puncture of the thoraxThoracoscopy- visual examination of the thoraxThoracoplasty- surgical repair of the thoraxThoracotomy- surgical removal of the thorax
59Medical Terminology Root Word(s): pnea- denotes breathing Eupnea- normal breathingDyspnea- difficult breathingOrthopnea- straight breathingHyperpnea- excessive/above breathingTachypnea- fast breathingApnea- without breathing
60Medical Terminology Root Word(s): Bronch(o)- denotes bronchi Bronchiectasis- dilation of the bronchiBronchitis- inflammation in the bronchiBronchoscopy- visual examination of the bronchiBronchoplegia- paralysis of the bronchiBronchopneumonitis- inflammation of the lung and bronchi
61Medical Terminology Root Word(s): Pleur(o)- denotes the membrane lining the chest cavity and covering the lungsPleuralgia- pain in the membrane lining the chest cavity and covering the lungsPleuroclysis- washing out in the membrane lining the chest cavity and covering the lungsPleuritis- inflammation in the membrane lining the chest cavity and covering the lungsPleurotomy- surgical incision in the membrane lining the chest cavity and covering the lungsPleurocentesis- surgical puncture of the membrane lining the chest cavity and covering the lungs
62Medical Terminology Root Word(s): Pharyng(o)- denotes the pharynx Pharyngonasal- pertaining to the nose of the pharynxPharyngitis- inflammation of the pharynxPharyngoscope- visual examination of the pharynxPharyngostenosis- abnormal hardening of the pharynxPharyngoxerosis- dry condition of the pharynx
63Abbreviations (G-H) GA gal GB GC GI Gm gr GTT Gyn Gastric Analysis GallonGallbladderGonorrheaGastrointestinalGramGrainGlucose Tolerance TestGynecology
64Abbreviations (G-H) H H2O H2O2 HBV HCI hct HDL Hg Hgb HHA Hydrogen WaterPeroxideHepatitis B VirusHydrochloric AcidHemacritHigh DensityMercuryHemoglobinHome Health Assistant
65Abbreviations (G-H) HMO HOB HOH Hr, hr, hrs Ht Hx hypo hyper hyst Health Maintenance OrganizationHead of BedHard of HearingHour, hoursHeightHistoryHypodermic, or underAbove, highhysterectomy