Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system."— Presentation transcript:

1 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system

2 2 Structures of the respiratory system Upper Respiratory System  Nose  Sinuses  Pharynx  Epiglottis  Larynx Lower Respiratory System  Trachea  Lungs

3 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 3 Structures of the Upper Respiratory System Nose Nasal cavity – space behind the nose Vestibular region Olfactory region Respiratory region Nasal septum – cartilage that divides the nose into right and left sides Turbinates – scroll-like bones in the respiratory region Cilia – nose hairs

4 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 4 Structures of the Upper Respiratory System Sinuses - Cavities in the skull.  Ducts connect sinuses to the nasal cavity  Lined with mucous membrane to warm and moisten the air  Provide resonance to the voice

5 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 5 Structures of the Upper Respiratory System Pharynx  Throat Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx  About 5” long

6 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 6 Structures of the Upper Respiratory System Epiglottis A flap or lid that closes over the opening to the larynx when food is swallowed

7 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 7 Structures of the Upper Respiratory System Larynx Voice Box  Triangular chamber below pharynx  Within the larynx are vocal cords, the glottis  Also called the Adam’s Apple

8 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 8 Structures of the Lower Respiratory System Trachea Windpipe  Approximately 4 ½” long  The walls are composed of alternate bands of membrane and C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage.  Lined with ciliated mucous membrane

9 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 9 Structures of the Lower Respiratory System  At the lower end of trachea, the bronchus divide into right and left branches.  As they enter the lungs, the bronchus subdivide into bronchial tubes and into bronchioles.  At the end of the bronchioles are alveolar ducts and clusters of alveoli.

10 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 10 Structures of the Lower Respiratory System  Bronchi Ciliated mucous membrane and hyaline cartilage  Bronchial tubes Cartilaginous plates  Bronchioles Thinner walls of smooth muscle Lined with ciliated epithelium

11 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 11 Structures of the Lower Respiratory System Alveoli  Composed of a single layer of epithelial tissue  Contain surfactant …fatty substance that keeps the alveoli from collapsing  Each alveolus is surrounded by capillaries

12 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 12 Structures of the Lower Respiratory System The lungs are located in the thoracic cavity  Apex  Base Fit snugly over diaphragm. Lung tissue is porous and spongy.  Right lung  Larger and shorter than the left lung  Displaced by the liver  3 lobes  Left lung  Smaller than the right side  Displaced by the heart  2 lobes

13 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 13 Structures of the Lower Respiratory System Pleura  Thin, moist slippery membrane that covers lungs…serous membrane  Double-walled sac  Space is pleural cavity – filled with pleural fluid

14 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 14 Structures of the Lower Respiratory System Mediastinum  A septum or cavity between two principal portions of an organ. Contains the heart and its large vessels, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, and connective tissue  Also called the interpleural space  Located between the lungs  Contains the thoracic viscera

15 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 15 Structures of the Lower Respiratory System Diaphragm from the muscular system!

16 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 16 Breathing External respiration- gas exchange in the lungs occurs between the blood and air in the atmosphere Internal respiration - gas exchange at the cellular level where oxygen goes from the blood stream to the cells Inhalation Exhalation

17 Inspiration The part of respiration that involves air being taken into the lungs. The intercostal muscle lifts ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward - this increases the volume of the lungs and air rushes in Remember the structures of the respiratory system 17

18 Expiration Opposite action takes place Exhalation is a passive process 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 18

19 19 Breathing 1 inspiration + 1 expiration = 1 respiration How many times does a normal adult breath per minute? Normal # of breaths an adult takes each minute Increases with exercise, body temperature, certain diseases. Changes with age – newborn = 40-60/min Sleep = respirations ↓ Emotion can ↑ or ↓ respiratory rate

20 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 20 Respiratory Movements Compare respiratory movements. Coughing Hiccups Sneezing Yawning Why do they occur?

21 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 21 Control of breathing Neural Factors Respiratory center located in MEDULLA OBLONGATA PHRENIC NERVE – stimulates the diaphragm

22 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 22 Control of breathing Chemical Factors CO2 and O2 levels in the blood is sensed by the brain (respiratory center in brain) Chemoreceptor in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood O2

23 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 23 Types of breathing Apnea Dyspnea Eupnea Hyperpnea Orthopnea Tachypnea Hyperventilation

24 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 24 Lung capacity and volume Tidal volume Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

25 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 25 Lung capacity and volume Vital lung capacity Residual volume Functional residual capacity

26 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 26 Lung capacity and volume Total lung capacity  Tidal volume  Inspiratory reserve  Expiratory reserve  Residual air Sample

27 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 27 Respiratory disorders COMMON COLD  What is it? What causes it?  Hand-washing – best preventative measure

28 COMMON COLD Contagious viral respiratory infection Indirect causes – chilling, fatigue, lack of proper food, and not enough sleep Rx – Rest, drink warm liquids and fruit juice, good nutrition Also called an Upper Respiratory Infection (URI) Hand washing – best preventative measure

29 LARYNGITIS Inflammation of larynx or voice box Often secondary to other respiratory infections Symptoms – sore throat, hoarseness or loss of voice, dysphasia (difficulty swallowing)…treatment = no talking!

30 RESPIRATORY DISORDERS SINUSITIS Infection of mucous membrane that lines sinus cavities Caused by bacteria or virus Symptoms – headache or pressure, thick nasal discharge, loss of voice resonance Rx – symptomatic, surgery for chronic sinusitis

31 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 31 Respiratory disorders Asthma

32 ASTHMA Inflammatory airway obstruction Caused by allergen or psychological stress 5% of Americans have asthma Symptoms = difficulty exhaling, dyspnea, wheezing, tightness in chest Rx: anti-inflammatory drugs, inhaled bronchodilator

33 BRONCHITIS Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchial tubes, producing excessive mucous May be acute or chronic Acute bronchitis characterized by cough, fever, substernal pain and RALES (raspy sound) Chronic bronchitis – middle or old age, cigarette smoking most common cause

34 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 34 Respiratory disorders Bronchitis

35 REPIRATORY DISORDERS CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD) – Describes chronic lung conditions, especially emphysema and chronic bronchitis Rx – alleviate the symptoms, decrease exposure to respiratory irritants, prevent infections, restructure activities to prevent need for O2

36 EMPHYSEMA Alveoli becomes over dilated, lose their elasticity. May eventually rupture Air becomes trapped, can’t exhale – forced exhalation required Reduced exchange of O2 and CO2 Dyspnea increases as disease progresses

37 INFLUENZA (Flu) Viral infection (VIRUS) causing inflammation of the mucous membrane of lungs Fever, mucopurulent discharge, muscular pain, extreme exhaustion Complications – pneumonia, neuritis, otitis media and pleuresy Rx – treat the symptoms

38 PNEUMONIA Infection of the lung Caused by bacteria or virus. Alveoli fill with exudates (thick fluid) Symptoms – chest pain, fever, chills dyspnea Rx – O2 and antibiotics

39 39 Respiratory disorders Pneumothorax – collapsed lung due to air entering the pleural cavity

40 TUBERCULOSIS Illegal immigration, homelessness and AIDS has caused an increase in US. Tubercles (lesions) form in the lungs Symptoms: cough, low grade fever in the afternoon, weight loss, night sweats Diagnosis – TB skin test If skin test positive – follow up with chest x-ray and sputum sample Rx – antibiotic

41 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 41 Relevance of nutrients to the respiratory system The respiratory system plays a vital role in homeostasis


Download ppt "2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google