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The Respiratory System. 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 2 nce/health-and-human-body/human-

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Presentation on theme: "The Respiratory System. 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 2 nce/health-and-human-body/human-"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Respiratory System

2 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 2 nce/health-and-human-body/human- body/lungs-article.html

3 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 3

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5 Upper Respiratory System Structures Nose Sinuses Pharynx Epiglottis Larynx Trachea 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 5

6 Lower Respiratory System Structures Trachea  Bronchi  Bronchial tubes  Bronchioles  Alveoli Lungs  Pleura  Mediastinum  Diaphragm 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 6

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8 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 8 Structures of the Upper Respiratory System Nose Nasal cavity – space behind the nose Vestibular region Olfactory region Respiratory region Nasal septum – cartilage that divides the nose into right and left sides Turbinates – scroll-like bones in the respiratory region Cilia – nose hairs

9 NASAL CAVITY NASAL SEPTUM = divides nasal cavities into R and L sides Turbinates are bones that protrude into the nasal cavity – they increase surface area for filtering dust and dirt particles by the mucous membrane. CILIA – the hairs in your nose, trap larger dirt particles 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 9

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11 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 11 Structures of the Upper Respiratory System Sinuses - Cavities in the skull.  Ducts connect sinuses to the nasal cavity  Lined with mucous membrane to warm and moisten the air  Provide resonance to the voice

12 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 12 SINUSES – cavities in the skull, ducts connect them to the nasal cavity, lined with mucous membrane to warm and moisten the air. Frontal Maxillary Ethmoid Sphenoid Sinuses give resonance to the voice.

13 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 13 Structures of the Upper Respiratory System Pharynx  Throat Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx  About 5” long

14 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 14 Structures of the Upper Respiratory System Epiglottis A flap or lid that closes over the opening to the larynx when food is swallowed

15 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 15 PHARYNX The throat Common passageway for air and food 5” long When food is swallowed, the EPIGLOTTIS closes over the opening to the larynx, preventing food from entering the lungs.

16 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 16 Structures of the Upper Respiratory System Larynx Voice Box  Triangular chamber below pharynx  Within the larynx are vocal cords, the glottis  Also called the Adam’s Apple

17 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 17 LARYNX Voice box Triangular chamber below pharynx Within the larynx are vocal cords (GLOTTIS) Adam’s Apple

18 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 18 Structures of the Lower Respiratory System Trachea Windpipe  Approximately 4 ½” long  The walls are composed of alternate bands of membrane and C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage.  Lined with ciliated mucous membrane

19 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 19 TRACHEA Windpipe 4 ½ in. long Walls are alternate bands of membrane and C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage – to keep trachea open Lined with ciliated mucous membrane Coughing and expectoration gets rid of dust-laden mucous

20 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 20 Structures of the Lower Respiratory System  At the lower end of trachea, the bronchus divide into right and left branches.  As they enter the lungs, the bronchus subdivide into bronchial tubes and into bronchioles.  At the end of the bronchioles are alveolar ducts and clusters of alveoli.

21 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 21 Structures of the Lower Respiratory System  Bronchi Ciliated mucous membrane and hyaline cartilage  Bronchial tubes Cartilaginous plates  Bronchioles Thinner walls of smooth muscle Lined with ciliated epithelium

22 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 22 BRONCHI and BRONCHIOLESBRONCHI and BRONCHIOLES Lower end of trachea divides into R and L bronchus As they enter lungs, subdivide into bronchial tubes and bronchioles Bronchi – similar to trachea with ciliated mucous membrane and hyaline cartilage Bronchial tubes – cartilaginous plates (instead of C-shaped rings) Bronchioles – thinner walls of smooth muscle, lined with ciliated epithelium At the end, alveolar duct and cluster of alveoli

23 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 23 Structures of the Lower Respiratory System Alveoli  Composed of a single layer of epithelial tissue  Contain surfactant  Each alveolus is surrounded by capillaries

24 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 24 ALVEOLI Composed of a single layer of epithelial tissue Inner surfaces covered with SURFACTANT – to keep alveoli from collapsing Each alveolus surrounded by capillaries O 2 and CO 2 exchange takes place between the alveoli and capillaries

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26 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 26 Structures of the Lower Respiratory System The lungs are located in the thoracic cavity  Apex  Base Fit snugly over diaphragm. Lung tissue is porous and spongy.  Right lung  Larger and shorter than the left lung  Displaced by the liver  3 lobes  Left lung  Smaller than the right side  Displaced by the heart  2 lobes

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29 LUNGS Fill thoracic cavity Upper part = apex Lower part = base Base fits snugly over diaphragm Lung tissue porous and spongy – it floats R lung = larger and shorter (displaced by the liver) and has 3 lobes L lung smaller (displaced by the heart) and has 2 lobes 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 29

30 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 30 Structures of the Lower Respiratory System Pleura  Thin, moist slippery membrane that covers lungs  Double-walled sac  Space is pleural cavity – filled with pleural fluid

31 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 31 PLEURA Thin, moist slippery membrane that covers lungs Double-walled sac Space is pleural cavity – filled with pleural fluid to prevent friction

32 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 32 Mediastinum  A septum or cavity between two principal portions of an organ. Contains the heart and its large vessels, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, and connective tissue  Also called the interpleural space  Located between the lungs  Contains the thoracic viscera

33 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 33 Diaphragm from the muscular system!

34 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 34 Let’s review the structures of the respiratory system …

35 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 35 Functions of the Respiratory System Discuss the functions of the respiratory system. What is the relevance to your health?

36 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 36 Breathing Discuss the process of breathing. External respiration Internal respiration Inhalation Exhalation

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38 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 38 FUNCTION OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEMFUNCTION OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM External respiration, internal respiration, and cellular respiration Production of sound (vocal cords)

39 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 39 Breathing 1 inspiration + 1 expiration = 1 respiration How many times does a normal adult breath per minute?

40 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 40 PULMONARY VENTILATION (Breathing) INSPIRATION Intercostal muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward – this increases the volume of the lungs and air rushes in. EXPIRATION Opposite action takes place Exhalation is a passive process

41 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 41 Respiratory Movements Compare respiratory movements. Coughing Hiccups Sneezing Yawning Why do they occur?

42 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 42 Respiratory Movements 1 inspiration + 1 expiration = 1 respiration Normal adult = respirations per minute Increases with exercise, body temperature, certain diseases. Age - newborn = 40-60/min Sleep = respirations  Emotion can  or  rate

43 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 43 Coughing – deep breath followed by forceful expulsion of air – to clear lower respiratory tract. Hiccups – spasm of the diaphragm and spasmotic closure of the glottis – irritation to diaphragm or phrenic nerve Sneezing – air forced through nose to clear respiratory tract Yawning – deep prolonged breath that fills the lungs, increases oxygen within the blood

44 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 44 Control of breathing Neural Factors  Explain the role of the Medulla Oblongata  What does the Phrenic Nerve do?

45 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 45 Control of breathing Chemical Factors  What are the chemical factors involved in breathing?  Compare to NEURAL FACTORS.

46 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 46 Control of Breathing Breathing controlled by neural and chemical factors. Neural Factors Respiratory center located in MEDULLA OBLONGATA  on CO 2 or  O 2 in the blood will trigger respiratory center PHRENIC NERVE – stimulates the diaphragm

47 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system 47 Chemical Factors Depends on the levels of CO 2 in the blood (respiratory center in brain) Chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood O 2

48 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 48 Types of breathing Apnea Dyspnea Eupnea Hyperpnea Orthopnea Tachypnea Hyperventilation

49 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 49 Lung capacity and volume Tidal volume Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

50 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 50 Lung capacity and volume Vital lung capacity Residual volume Functional residual capacity

51 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 51 Lung capacity and volume Total lung capacity  Tidal volume  Inspiratory reserve  Expiratory reserve  Residual air Sample

52 2.05 Remember the structures of the respiratory system Remember the structures of the respiratory system Essential question What are the structures of the respiratory system?


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