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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Chapter 16. COMPONENTS  Tubes that filter incoming air  Air transported to alveoli (gas exchange)

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Presentation on theme: "RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Chapter 16. COMPONENTS  Tubes that filter incoming air  Air transported to alveoli (gas exchange)"— Presentation transcript:


2 COMPONENTS  Tubes that filter incoming air  Air transported to alveoli (gas exchange)

3 RESPIRATION  Respiration: process of gas exchange between atmosphere and body cells  Consists of  Ventilation  Gas exchange between blood and lungs  Gas transport in the bloodstream  Gas exchange between the blood and body cells  Cellular respiration

4 ORGANS  Upper Respiratory Tract (nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, and pharynx)  Lower Respiratory Tract (larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs)

5 Front alsinus Nasal cavity Oral cavity Larynx Bronchus Hard palate Nostril Right lungLeft lung Trachea Soft palate Pharynx Epiglottis Esophagus

6 NOSE  Supported by bone and cartilage  Provides an entrance for air  Nostril hair filters air

7 NASAL CAVITY  Posterior to nose  Cavity has passageways  Lined with mucous membranes and help increase the surface area available to warm and filter incoming air  Particles in air can get trapped in mucus….  What will flush the mucus out?  Where will mucus go?

8 SINUSES  Air filled spaces in skull  Open to nasal cavity  Lined with mucus  Function: lighten skull; resonates voice

9 PHARYNX  Food and air pass through  Helps produce speech sounds

10 Frontal sinus Nostril Hard palate Uvula Tongue Epiglottis Hyoid bone Larynx Trachea Superior Middle Inferior Sphenoidal sinus Pharyngeal tonsil Nasopharynx Opening of auditory tube Palatine tonsil Oropharynx Lingual tonsil Laryngopharynx Esophagus Nasal conchae

11 LARYNX  Between pharynx and trachea  Functions:  Prevents particles from entering trachea  Holds vocal cords

12 Trachea Epiglottic cartilage Hyoid bone Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Hyoid bone Epiglottic cartilage Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Trachea

13 VOCAL CORDS  Two pairs  Changing tension controls pitch  Changing force of air controls loudness

14 EPIGLOTTIS  Flap that covers trachea during swallowing

15 TRACHEA  Anterior to esophagus…..why?  Extends into thoracic cavity  Separates into right and left bronchi  Inner wall lined with cilia and mucus……why?  20 cartilaginous rings

16 BRONCHIAL TREE  Branched tubes leading from trachea to alveoli  Starts with two main bronchi (right and left….each leads to a lung)  Bronchi lead to bronchioles

17 ALVEOLI  Bronchioles lead to alveolar ducts, which lead to alveolar sacs, then end in alveoli  Gas exchange between blood and air

18 Larynx Trachea Left superior (upper) lobe Left inferior (lower) lobe Right middle lobe Right superior (upper) lobe Right main (primary) bronchus Lobar (secondary) bronchus Segmental (tertiary) bronchus Right inferior (lower) lobe Alveolar duct Alveolus Terminal bronchiole Respiratory bronchiole

19 Pulmonary vein Pulmonary artery Pulmonary arteriole Pulmonary venule Intralobular bronchiole Alveolus Terminal bronchiole Smooth muscle Alveolar duct Alveolar sac Alveoli Capillary network on surface of alveolus Blood flow Respiratory bronchiole


21 LUNGS  Right and left  Right has 3 lobes, left has 2 lobes  Separated by mediastinum  Enclosed by diaphragm and thoracic cage (ribs)  Bronchus and blood vessels enter each lung

22 Pericardial cavity Heart Left pleural cavity Parietal pleura Visceral pleura Plane of section Right pleural cavity Pericardium Pleura

23 BREATHING MECHANISM  Ventilation  Composed of two parts: inspiration and exhalation

24 INSPIRATION  Flow of air into lungs  Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract  The size of the thoracic cavity increases  Increase in volume of cavity = decrease in pressure so air flows from high to low pressure


26 EXHALATION  Air leaving lungs  Largely a passive process which depends on natural lung elasticity  As muscles relax, air is pushed out of lungs


28 Diaphragm Intra-alveolar pressure (758 mm Hg) Intra-alveolar pressure (760 mm Hg)

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