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Diseases and Abnormal Conditions of The Respiratory System

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Presentation on theme: "Diseases and Abnormal Conditions of The Respiratory System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Diseases and Abnormal Conditions of The Respiratory System

2 Atelectasis Collapse of lung tissue.

3 Pleural Effusion Flowing of fluid into the pleural space

4 Pneumothorax Condition in which there is air (pneumo) in the thoracic cavity (thorax) outside the lungs between the two pleura.

5 Asthma A respiratory disorder usually caused by a sensitivity to an allergen such as dust, pollen, an animal, a food, stress, overexertion and infection. Symptoms of an asthma attack include: dyspnea (difficulty breathing), wheezing, coughing accompanied by expectoration of sputum and tightness of the chest. Treatment methods: anti-inflammatory medications, epinephrine, and oxygen therapy.

6 Bronchitis An inflammation of the bronchi and bronchiole tubes.
Acute-usually caused by infection. Chronic-frequent attacks of acute bronchitis and long-term exposure to pollutants or smoking.

7 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Any chronic lung disease that results in obstruction of the airways. Factors: smoking (primary cause), allergies, and chronic respiratory infections. Chronic asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema and tuberculosis lead to COPD.

8 Emphysema A noninfectious, chronic respiratory condition that occurs when the walls of the alveoli deteriorate and lose their elasticity. Symptoms: dyspnea, pain, chronic cough, rapid respirations accompanied by prolonged expirations, a feeling of suffocation, and eventually respiratory failure and death. Common cause: heavy smoking and prolonged exposure to air pollutants. Treatment: although no cure, bronchodilators, oxygen therapy, respiratory therapy, avoidance of smoke and prompt treatment of respiratory infections.

9 Tuberculosis (TB) An infectious lung disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The TB organisms remain dormant in the tubercles but can cause an active case of tuberculosis later, if the body resistance is lowered. Symptoms of an active case include: fatigue, night sweats, fever, weight loss, hemoptysis (coughing up blood-tinged sputum), and chest pain. Treatment: administering drugs for one or more years to destroy the bacteria.

10 Pneumonia An inflammation of the lungs characterized by the exudate (a buildup of fluid) in the alveoli, usually caused by bacteria, viruses or chemicals. Symptoms: chills, fever, chest pain, productive cough, dyspnea, and fatigue. Treatment: bed rest, fluids, antibiotics, respiratory therapy, and/or pain medication.

11 Laryngitis An inflammation of the larynx and vocal cords.
Symptoms: hoarseness or loss of voice; sore throat; and dysphagia (difficulty swallowing). Treatment: rest, limited voice use, fluids, and medication (if infection is present).

12 Lung Cancer A preventable disease that is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. Main cause: exposure to carcinogens in tobacco (through smoking or exposure to “second-hand” smoke). Symptoms: early stages-none; later stages-chronic cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea, fatigue, weight loss and chest pain. Treatment: surgical removal of the cancerous sections of the lung, radiation, and/or chemotherapy.

13 Sinusitis An inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the sinuses, usually caused by bacterium or virus. Symptoms: headache or pressure, thick nasal discharge, congestion, and loss of voice resonance. Treatment: analgesics (for pain), antibiotics (if indicated), decongestants (medications to loosen secretions), and moist inhalations.

14 Influenza (Flu) A highly contagious, viral infection of the upper respiratory system. Symptoms: sudden onset of chills, fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, muscle pain, and fatigue. Treatment: bed rest, fluids, analgesics(for pain), and antipyretics (for fever). Immunization recommended for the elderly, individuals with chronic diseases, pregnant women, children and health care workers.

15 Upper Respiratory Infection (URI) or Common Cold
An inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the upper respiratory tract. Highly contagious , caused by viruses. Symptoms: fever, runny nose, watery eyes, congestion, sore throat, and hacking cough, usually lasting one week. Treatment: rest, analgesics, antipyretics, increased fluid intake, and antihistamines (to relieve congestion).

16 Pleurisy An inflammation of the pleura, or membranes, of the lungs, usually occurring in conjuction with pneumonia or other lung infections. Symptoms: sharp, stabbing pain while breathing, dyspnea, crepitation (grating sounds in the lungs), and fever. Treatment: rest and medications to relieve pain and inflammation.

17 Rhinitis An inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane, resulting in a runny nose, soreness, and congestion. Common causes: infections and allergens. Treatment: administering fluids and medications to relieve congestion.

18 Epitaxis A nosebleed, occurs when capillaries of the nose become congested and bleed. Causes: an injury or blow to the nose, hypertension, chronic infection, anticoagulant drugs, and blood diseases such as hemophilia and leukemia.

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