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Presentation on theme: "The RESPIRATORY System"— Presentation transcript:

Also called the Pulmonary System – works closely with the circulatory system - sometimes called the Cardiopulmonary system

2 Functions of the Respiratory System
Primary Function = Gas Exchange Bring O2 from the environment to the bloodstream To remove CO2 from the body/bloodstream Body has 4-6 minute supply of oxygen

3 Respiration The exchange of gases between the atmosphere, blood, and cells Pulmonary Ventilation - the exchange of air between the atmosphere and lungs External Respiration - gas exchange between the lungs & bloodstream Internal Respiration - gas exchange between the blood, cells, and tissues Breathing is really two separate processes Ventilation – movement of air into and out of the lungs inspiration & expiration (inhalation & exhalation) Pulmonary ventilation = breathing Respiration – the gas exchange process Rate – breaths/minute External Respiration – oxygen & carbon dioxide exchange between lungs & bloodstream Internal Respiration – carbon dioxide & oxygen exchange between the tissue cells & the bloodstream Cellular Respiration – exchange of oxygen & nutrients to produce energy, water, and carbon dioxide

4 Organs of the Respiratory System
Nasal Cavity Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi Lungs Alveoli Pleura

5 Respiratory System

6 Respiratory Structures

7 Nasal Cavity Nares – openings in the nose
Divided into the right and left sides by the NASAL SEPTUM

8 Internal Nose Structures

9 Functions of the Nose Warming, moisturizing and filtering incoming air
Smell (reception of olfactory stimulus) Resonating chamber for speech

10 Pharynx (throat) Extends from the internal nares down to the cricoid cartilage of the larynx Divided into three areas Nasopharynx – passageway for air only Contains the pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) Oropharynx – passageway for both air & food Contains the palatine tonsils Laryngopharynx – passageway for food into the esophagus Laryngopharynx – divides the respiratory tract into the esophagus & the larynx Esophagus – carries food to the stomach

11 Regions of the Pharynx

12 Functions of the Pharynx
Passageway for food and air Resonating chamber for speech

13 Larynx (Voice Box) A short passageway connecting the pharynx with the trachea Composed of cartilage epiglottic cartilage (Epiglottis) thyroid cartilage (Adam’s Apple) cricoid cartilage (attaches the Larynx to the Trachea) Thyroid cartilage = adam’s apple – largest of the cartilage pieces

14 Larynx Structures

15 Epiglottis Large leaf-shaped piece of cartilage lying on top of the larynx Unattached and acts like a trap door covering the opening to the trachea which is called the glottis

16 Epiglottis

17 Glottis The opening from the pharynx to the larynx containing the vocal cords Vocal Cords - mucous membrane folds extending across the glottis in two layers upper layer or folds - false vocal folds lower layer or folds - true vocal folds Sounds originate from vibration of these true vocal cords

18 Glottis and Vocal Cords

19 Trachea (windpipe) Anterior to the esophagus
Composed of C-shaped cartilage rings stacked upon one another Hyaline cartilage rings Divides into right & left bronchi Carries air to & from the lungs Tubular passageway about 12 cm long and 2.54 cm in diameter Extends from the larynx to about the 5th thoracic vertebrae Lined with ciliated epithelium The point where the trachea bifurcates is called the carina -at about the 5th thoracic vertebrae

20 Trachea and Esophagus

21 Bronchi Tubes that branch off of the trachea at the carina and extend into the lungs Serves as a passageway for air Left Primary Bronchus Right Primary Bronchus) Shorter and more vertical Swallowed objects more likely to lodge in the right primary bronchus than the left

22 Bronchial Tree

23 Lungs Paired - cone shaped organs that occupy most of the thoracic cavity Right Lung – larger – has three lobes Left Lung – two lobes Bronchioles – passageways for air from the bronchi to the alveoli Alveoli – air sacs where gas exchange takes place (diffusion) Surrounded by a double membrane called the pleura Lobes of the Lungs: Superior Lobe, Inferior Lobe, Middle Lobe (Right Lung only)

24 Left Lung

25 Pleural Membrane Parietal Pleura - outer layer of the pleural membrane
Lines the thoracic cavity Visceral Pleura - inner layer of the pleural membrane Covers the outer surface of the lungs Between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura is a potential space called the pleural cavity Double membrane = pleura – one is the parietal pleura & the other is the visceral pleura

26 Alveoli Air sacs - where external respiration occurs (gas exchange between the lungs and the blood)

27 Alveoli

28 Physiology of Ventilation
Ventilation - the process of inhaling and exhaling air in and out of the lungs Pulmonary Ventilation - the process by which air flows between the lungs and the external environment

29 Inspiration (Inhalation)
Bringing air into the lungs from the external environment

30 Ventilation

31 Muscles of Ventilation

32 Expiration (Exhalation)
Movement of air from the lungs to the external environment Normally a passive process (no energy or muscular contractions required) Respiration types: apnea dyspnea eupnea hyperpnea orthopnea tachypnea hyperventilation

33 Physiology of Respiration


35 Lung Cancer Most fatal cancer in the U.S. Highly metastatic
Usually linked with cigarette smoking Common irritants include smoking, pollution, dust particles 20 times more prevalent in smokers than non- smokers Metastatic –

36 Emphysema “Blown up or full of air”
A condition where the alveolar walls lose their elasticity and remain filled with air during expiration Alveoli become damaged and eventually merge together to form large air sacs with reduced overall volume Patients often develop a barrel chest Generally caused by cigarettes, pollution, industrial dust particles

37 Coryza and Influenza Common cold and flu Caused by one of many viruses
Antibiotics cannot help Medications used to treat the symptoms sneezing - coughing congestion - rhinorrhea May result in rhinitis rhinitis: inflammation of the nasal mucosa

38 Pneumonia Acute infection or inflammation of the alveoli of the lungs
Most common infectious cause of death in the U.S. Alveolar sacs fill with fluid and dead white blood cells reducing the amount of functional surface area of the lungs Most commonly caused by bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae Affects those in poor health or compromised immune system

39 Tuberculosis (TB) Caused by a bacterium
Mycobacterium tuberculosis An infectious communicable disease that destroys the lung tissue and pleura Replaced by fibrous connective tissue called tubercles Disease is spread by inhalation of the bacterium

40 Utah MAP CD

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