4Task…In order to gain a head start on the assessment you guys need to find a blank pictures of the various respiratory system structures and begin to label them: nasal cavity epiglottis pharynx larynx trachea bronchus bronchioles lungs (lobes, pleural membrane, thoracic cavity, visceral pleura, pleural fluid, alveoli) diaphragm intercostal muscles (external and internal)
5The Importance of the RS If respiratory system and/or circulatory system fails, death will occurCells need O2 for work; release CO2 as a waste productAccumulation of excess CO2 is toxic to cells and MUST be removed
6Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained Nasal cavitySpace above and behind the noseMade of cartilage and boneDivided into 2 by a cartilaginous septumHairs within the nostrils filter out dust etc before air passes into two nasal cavities.Designed to warm, moisten, and filter air before it passes to the nasopharynxA mucous layerPharynx – (throat)Funnel shapedConnects to larynx and oesophagusSmall muscular tubeconducts food and airexchanges air with Eustachian tube to equalize pressure
7Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained Epiglottisflap of cartilage that covers tracheaensures food travels down the esophagusLarynx – (voice box)Connects the pharynx and the trachea.Made of cartilage and musclecontains vocal cordsHelps us to speak
8Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained larynxtracheabronchibronchiolesTrachea – (windpipe)Tubular passageway (12 cm long 2 cm diameter) to carry air towards the lungsC-shaped cartilage rings to keep it openDivides at end into : Bronchi
9Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained Bronchi:Pair of tubes that branch from trachea and enter lungsHave cartilage plates to keep them openLining is ciliated & secretes mucusBy now air is warm, moist and free from most impuritiesEach bronchi divides into:Lobar bronchiSegmental bronchi23 branches in totalTree
10Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained Bronchioles –tiny tubes extend from the bronchilacking cartilage and ciliapossess smooth musclebronchiolesmooth muscleThey about 1mm diameterTerminate in clusters of alveoli
11Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained LungsTwo cone shaped organs suspended in the pleural cavitiesSurrounded by a pleural membraneMade of elastic tissueDivide into lobesRight is larger as left has to accommodate the heartThis space is known as the cardiac notch
12Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained Lungs - lobesEach lung is divided into lobes.The right lung has three lobesThe left lung has only 2 lobes.
13Pleural Fluid Pleural membrane Visceral Pleura Is the innermost of the two pleural membranes. It covers the surface of the lungPleural membraneThe lungs are surrounded by membranes known as pleuraThese contain a cavity with fluid that lubricates the surfaces as the lungs expand and contract.Their main job is to prevent friction and keep the lungs airtight,Pleural FluidThe pleural membrane produces pleural fluid, which fills the space between the visceral and parietal pleura. This lubricating fluid allows the lungs to glide over one another easily.
14Thoracic CavityThis is the full name for the chamber of the chest that is protected by the thoracic wall. It is protected from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm
15Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained AlveoliAround the bronchioles are 600 million alveoli in each lung.Each one is in contact with a capillaryThis is where exchange of O2 and CO2 takes place.
16Alveoli Provide a huge area for gas exchange Cup shaped structures that resemble bunches of grapescovered with SURFACTANT that keep them from collapsingProvide a huge area for gas exchange
17Respiratory Muscles Diaphragm Intercostal muscles External intercostalsContract to pull the rib cage up when we breathe inInternal intercostalsContract to pull the rib cage down when we breathe outAttach between the ribsDiaphragmDome shaped muscle at the bottom of the ribcageBreathing in - Contracts – flattens, making chest cavity larger and drawing air in.
18Anatomy of the Respiratory system… Air enters through the Mouth & Nose.Passes through the Pharynx (back of throat).Passes through the Larynx (responsible for your voice production).Air passes over the Epiglottis (stops food going down our windpipe/trachea).Air enters the Trachea, membranous tube that delivers air to the lungs.Trachea divides into 2 Bronchi, one into each lung.2 main Bronchi divide into Bronchioles, which further subdivide 23 times into 8 million bronchioles in each lung.Around the Bronchioles you will find groups of air sacs called Alveoli (600 million in each lung).Alveoli are the catalyst for gas exchange (O2 and CO2), as they are in contact with the capillaries.
192. Function: Examine the respiratory system Describe the (1) Structure with all the parts named BELOW and (2) Function (1-4 BELOW) of the respiratory system.Examine the respiratory systemand explain how it works and how each part of the system is designed to meet its function1. Structure of the respiratory system:Nasal cavityEpiglottisPharynxLarynxTracheaBronchusBronchiolesLungs (lobes, pleural membrane, thoracic cavity, visceral pleura, pleural fluid, alveoli)DiaphragmIntercostal muscles (external and internal)2. Function:1. Gaseous exchange2. Mechanisms of breathing (inspiration and expiration)3. Lung volumes: e.g. tidalvolume, vital capacity, residual volume4. Control of breathing (neural and chemical)