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Overview of the Respiratory System

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1 Overview of the Respiratory System
ANATOMY Overview of the Respiratory System

2 Respiratory The respiratory system consists of the lungs and air passages. This system is responsible for taking in oxygen, a gas needed by all body cells, and removing carbon dioxide, a gas that is a waste product produced by the cells.

3 Why we need oxygen The body has only a four to six minute supply of oxygen. The respiratory system must work continuously or death will occur.

4 Parts of the system The parts of the respiratory include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.

5 The Nose The two nostrils are separated by the nasal septum, which divides the nose into two cavities called the nares or nasal cavities.

6 What the Nose Do? The function of the nose;
Removal of foreign bodies, either caught by the hairs of the nose or the mucous membranes which filter out he foreign objects.

7 What the nose does A rich blood supply in the nares, warms and moistens the air. Receptors for the olfactory gives us the sense of smell. The tear ducts from the eye drain into the nose.

8 What does the pharynx do?
Air leaving the nose passes into the pharnx, which is commonly called the throat, which is a common passageway for food and air.

9 Anatomy of the Respiratory System
Sinus cavity Nose Mouth Tongue Nasaopharynx oropharynx Laryngpharynx Pharynx Epiglottis esophagus Trachea

10 There are three sections to the Pharynx
The nasopharynx contains the tonsils and adenoids The oropharynx opens into the mouth. The larynopharynx opens into the larynx. Small tubes from the middle ear open into the larynopharynx

11 Larynx The larynx , which is also called the voice box is formed of cartilage plates. The largest is the thyroid cartilage called the Adams apple.

12 Larynx The larynx contains two folds which are your vocal cords which vibrate to produce sound and speech. At the end of the larynx is the epiglottis, that closes during swallowing which prevents foods from entering the respiratory tract.

13 Trachea The trachea or windpipe carries air to the bronchi.
The rings of the trachea are almost noncollapsible which keeps the trachea open allowing for air to enter the lungs, but can be obstructed by large pieces of food.

14 Trachea Coughing occurs when the trachea’s mucous and cilia (hair like structures) move foreign objects upward. This is your bodies natural defense against choking.

15 Bronchi The lower end of the trachea is divided into two Bronchi. As the bronchi enter the lung, they branch off into smaller tubes called bronchioles. These end in tiny air sacs called alveoli.

16 The lungs The lungs are divided into lobes: The right lung has three lobes and left lung has two lobes. Tiny grape like structures call alveoli are located in the lungs and are highly elastic.

17 Lungs A rich supply of blood capillaries surround the alveoli allowing the air exchange to occur. The lungs are covered by a two layered membrane called the pleura.

18 Breathing The process of breathing is called respiration. It involves inspiration ( inhaling of air) and expiration ( exhaling air.) One inspiration plus one expiration equals one respiration.

19 The lungs The large muscle separating the lungs from the abdomen is called the diaphragm. This contracts along with the rib muscles and allows air to get into the lungs.

20 Lungs The alveoli expanded with fresh oxygen, exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide with the tiny blood vessels that surround the alveoli.

21 Respirations Respirations vary at per minute and are controlled by the medulla of the brain. Chemical factors and conscious control also affect respiration.

22 Diseases affecting the respiratory system
Infections are the most common affliction of the respiratory system. Pneumonia – inflamation of the lungs. Upper respiratory – Ears, eyes, nose or throat. Also called URI’s Emphysema – loss of elasticity of alveoli causing air to be trapped. Asthma – causes spasms of the bronchi Cancers – abnormal cell growth

23 Your Lungs NormL Chest X ray Abnormal x-ray

24 Respiratory vocabulary
Respiratory Medical Terms anoxia (ah-NOCK-see-ah) without oxygen. apnea ( AP-nee-ah) temporary cessation of breathing. bradypnea (brad-ihp-NEE-ah) abnormal slow breathing. Cheyne-stokes respiration (chayn-stohks) periods of apnea lasting 10 to 60 seconds. dyspnea (disp-nee-ah) difficulty with breathing or labored breathing. epistaxis (ep-ih-stack-sis) nose bleed. hyperpnea ( high-perp-NEE- ah) an increased respiratory rate, or breathing that is deeper. hypoxia ( high-POCK-see-ah) defeciency of oxygen. rhinorrhea (rye-noh-REE-ah) thin watery discharge from the nose. tachypnea ( tack-ihp-NEE- ah) abnormal rapid respirations.

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