Synonymous Roots: Latin roots refer to anatomy Example: Oris (mouth), orbicularis oris Greek roots refer to disease and treatments Example: stoma (mouth), stomatitis, colostomy stoma
Combining Form: Vowel added to root word Linguistically enables the two elements to be connected. Usually an “o” Usually needed when the root word ends in a consonant
Combining Forms: Examples Nephrologist (a specialist in kidney diseases) Hepatocyte (a liver cell) Cystoscope (an instrument to look into the urinary bladder) These roots end in consonants
Combining Forms: Examples Hypothyroidism-disease in which insufficient thyroid hormone is made Meningitis-inflammatory or infectious disease of the lining layers of the brain Vowel follows the root word but is part of the suffixes. No combining form needed.
Suffixes: Element added to the END of the medical term. Modifies or changes the meaning of the word. Examples: anorexia, gastroscopy
Suffixes: These elements often determine the definition of the medical term. -ia or –ism means “condition of” Examples: hypoglycemia, anemia, hernia, schizophrenia, cryptorchidism, gigantism
Suffixes: Even more examples: -scope means “instrument used to look at something” Examples: microscope, anoscope -ectomy means “a procedure to remove something” Examples: appendectomy, splenectomy, hemipelvectomy
Suffixes: Should probably look at the suffix first to determine the meaning of a word Noun vs. adjective, etc.
Prefixes: Element added to the beginning of a medical term Also modifies or changes the meaning of the word.
Prefixes: Examples: Neurosurgeon (a surgeon who specializes in the brain & spinal cord) Hyperlipidemic (containing a high amount of lipids or fats) Anuric (making no urine)
Prefixes: Some Biggies Hypo-, hyper- (not enough, too much) Hypoglycemic, hypoglycemic Intra-, inter- (inside of, in between) Intracellular, intercellular Pan-, holo- (the entire range of) Pancytopenic, holosystolic Supra-, infra- (above, below) Supraorbital, Infraorbital
Prefixes: It never ends... Micro-, macro- (little, big) Microscopic, macroscopic Dextro-, levo- (right, left) Dextrocardia, levo-thyroxin
Combinations: Panhypopituitarism is a. A condition involving the pituitary gland b. A big scoring word for a Scrabble game c. Something we just don’t even want to know about
Panhypopituitarism: Pan / hypo / pituitar / ism What is the root? What is the suffix? What is / are the prefix (es)? What is the combining form?
Panhypopituitarism: Pan- = entire, all Hypo- = not enough of Pituitar- = pituitary gland, a tiny gland in the brain that secretes lots of regulatory hormones -ism = condition of The condition in which the pituitary gland makes insufficient amounts of all of the pituitary hormones
Categories: Suffixes Diminutive forms (smaller than usual) -icle, -ole,-ule Examples: arteriole, venule, tubule
Prefixes Word element located before the root word in a medical term The prefix changes or modifies the meaning of the word, e.g. hypotension. (hypo / tension means low blood pressure) Multiple prefixes may be used in a given word, e.g. panhypopituitarism
Common categories: Prefixes Related to time: Pre- = before (prenatal) Peri = around the same time as (periarrest) Post- = after (postmortem, postoperative)
Common categories: Prefixes Related to position Epi- = above, (epidermis, epicardium) Sub- = below (subcutaneous) Supra- = above (supraorbital) Infra- = below (infraclavicular) Intra- = inside (intraabdominal) Inter- = between (interdigital)
Prefixes: position, continued Post- or retro- = behind, backward or after (retroverted) Pre- or pro- = before or in front (prodrome or promyelocyte) Hypo- = below or deficient (hypokinetic)
Common categories: Prefixes Relating to number or measurement Hemi- = half (hemithorax, hemiplegia) Uni- or mono- = one (unicellular) Bi- or diplo- = two (biphasic, diplopia) Tri- = three (trigeminal nerve) Quadri- = four (quadriplegia) Multi- or poly- = many (multisystem)
Prefixes: common categories Number and measurement (continued) Hyper- = above normal (hyperactive) Micro- = smaller than normal (microcephalic) Macro- = larger than normal (macrocytic anemia)
Prefix Categories: Direction Ab- away from (abduction) Ad- toward (adduction) Circum- around (circumcision) Trans- through (transesophageal) Exo- or extra- = outside (extracorporeal circulation or exoskeleton) Endo- inside (endodontist)
Prefix categories: Direction Para- near (parathyroid gland) Peri- near (pericardial) Super- or ultra- excessive or above (ultrasound, superficial)
Other popular prefixes: Brady –slow (bradycardia) Tachy- fast (tachypnea) Dys- painful, difficult, abnormal (dysfunction, dyspnea, dysrrhythmia) A- or an- = not or without (asystole) Anti- or contra- = against or opposite (contraindication)
Other Prefixes: Mal- = bad, abnormal (maladaptive) Pan- = all (pandemic) Pseudo- = false (pseudoseizure) Syn- = joined (syndesmosis) Eu- normal (euthyroid, euthermic)
Translate into English: He has a subconjunctival hemorrhage. Her serum digoxin level is subtheraputic despite high oral doses of the medicine. His utererostomy is dysfunctional.
More practice words: Periarticular Supraauricular Intracranial Hypertension Hyperuricemia Antiverted Pericardiocentesis Tachycardia
What the hell does that mean? We should see the dyspneic patient first. Narcotic medications make him dysphoric instead of euphoric. He’s dysequilibrium is due to alcohol intoxication. Hypotensive patients often feel dizzy.
Which words have prefixes? Gastritis Appendectomy Prenatal Pedal Oncologist Hemithorax Paraplegia Retrocardiac
What are the root words? Perimortem Hypokalemia Panarthritis Intraarticular Diplococcus
Which words describe position? Supraorbital Submental Retrosternal Intrathoracic Triphasic Polymorphic Arteriole Coronary
Which are conditions? Hemochromatosis Dimorphism Celiac Intestine Enterotomy Polycythemia Angioedema Colonoscope Intracerebral
General Medical Terms: Diagnosis: disease or condition found or suspected after evaluation Differential Diagnoses: list of possible diseases that fit the clinical information Prognosis: the likely future course of the condition, patient outcome Etiology: cause
Examples: My differential diagnoses include meningitis, stroke, and tricyclic antidepressant toxicity. He has fever of unknown etiology. His admission diagnosis is septic shock, but the etiology is uncertain. If he controls his hypercholesterolemia, his prognosis is good.
General Medical Terms: Symptom: a perception of the body noticed by the patient. It may not be perceived by anyone else. Called subjective. Examples are pain, chest pressure, dizziness, abdominal cramping
General Medical Terms: Sign: a finding or manifestation of an illness that can be perceived by someone other than the patient. Considered objective. Examples: labored respirations, pale skin, hypotension, diaphoresis (clammy sweat), swollen ankles, lacerations, alopecia
Other general terms: Idiopathic: without a clear cause Iatrogenic: caused by medical treatment or procedures
Levels of Organization: From smallest unit to largest: Cell Tissue Organ System Organism
The Cellular Level: Cytology-the study of cells Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of living things Parts of a cell: Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus
Tissues: Groups of cells that perform a specialized function/activity Histology = microscopic study of cells and tissues
Major types of tissues: Epithelial: cells that cover and line surfaces and cavities of the body Connective: supporting tissue between organs and tissues Muscle: contractile tissues that bring about movement Nervous: transmit electrical impulses
Organs: Body structures with two or more tissue types. Organs have one or more specific functions.
System: A group of organs and accessory structures that perform a specific function or interrelated functions. Examples: gastrointestinal system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system.
Organism: Complete living entity capable of independent existence. May be unicellular (e.g. bacteria) or multicellular.
Terms of Anatomical Position Superior/ inferior Anterior/ posterior Medial/ lateral Sagittal (median) Coronal (frontal) Transverse (horizontal)
Body Cavities: Cranial (contains the brain) Spinal (contains the spinal cord) Thoracic (lungs, heart, esophagus, and some major blood vessels) Abdominal (contains most of the GI tract, separated from thoracic cavity by the diaphragm) Pelvic (contains reproductive and GU organs)
Abdominal Cavity: Quadrants Right Upper: liver, gallbladder, pancreatic head, large and small bowels Left Upper: stomach, spleen, pancreatic tail, large and small bowels Right lower: appendix, large and small bowels, ovary, fallopian tube, ureter Left lower: large and small bowels, ovary, ureter, fallopian tube
Abdominal cavity: other terms Epigastric Umbilical/ periumbilical Hypochondriac (right and left) Suprapubic (hypogastric) Lumbar (right and left) Inguinal (iliac, right and left)