5Synonymous Roots: Latin roots refer to anatomy Example: Oris (mouth), orbicularis orisGreek roots refer to disease and treatmentsExample: stoma (mouth), stomatitis, colostomy stoma
6Combining Form: Vowel added to root word Linguistically enables the two elements to be connected.Usually an “o”Usually needed when the root word ends in a consonant
7Combining Forms: Examples Nephrologist (a specialist in kidney diseases)Hepatocyte (a liver cell)Cystoscope (an instrument to look into the urinary bladder)These roots end in consonants
8Combining Forms: Examples Hypothyroidism-disease in which insufficient thyroid hormone is madeMeningitis-inflammatory or infectious disease of the lining layers of the brainVowel follows the root word but is part of the suffixes.No combining form needed.
9Suffixes: Element added to the END of the medical term. Modifies or changes the meaning of the word.Examples: anorexia, gastroscopy
10Suffixes:These elements often determine the definition of the medical term.-ia or –ism means “condition of”Examples: hypoglycemia, anemia, hernia, schizophrenia, cryptorchidism, gigantism
11Suffixes: Even more examples: -scope means “instrument used to look at something”Examples: microscope, anoscope-ectomy means “a procedure to remove something”Examples: appendectomy, splenectomy, hemipelvectomy
12Suffixes:Should probably look at the suffix first to determine the meaning of a wordNoun vs. adjective, etc.
13Prefixes: Element added to the beginning of a medical term Also modifies or changes the meaning of the word.
14Prefixes:Examples:Neurosurgeon (a surgeon who specializes in the brain & spinal cord)Hyperlipidemic (containing a high amount of lipids or fats)Anuric (making no urine)
15Prefixes: Some Biggies Hypo-, hyper- (not enough, too much)Hypoglycemic, hypoglycemicIntra-, inter- (inside of, in between)Intracellular, intercellularPan-, holo- (the entire range of)Pancytopenic, holosystolicSupra-, infra- (above, below)Supraorbital, Infraorbital
16Prefixes: It never ends. . . Micro-, macro- (little, big)Microscopic, macroscopicDextro-, levo- (right, left)Dextrocardia, levo-thyroxin
17Combinations: Panhypopituitarism is A condition involving the pituitary glandA big scoring word for a Scrabble gameSomething we just don’t even want to know about
18Panhypopituitarism: Pan / hypo / pituitar / ism What is the root? What is the suffix?What is / are the prefix (es)?What is the combining form?
19Panhypopituitarism: Pan- = entire, all Hypo- = not enough of Pituitar- = pituitary gland, a tiny gland in the brain that secretes lots of regulatory hormones-ism = condition ofThe condition in which the pituitary gland makes insufficient amounts of all of the pituitary hormones
33Categories: Suffixes Diminutive forms (smaller than usual) -icle, -ole,-uleExamples: arteriole, venule, tubule
34Prefixes Word element located before the root word in a medical term The prefix changes or modifies the meaning of the word, e.g. hypotension.(hypo / tension means low blood pressure)Multiple prefixes may be used in a given word, e.g. panhypopituitarism
35Common categories: Prefixes Related to time:Pre- = before (prenatal)Peri = around the same time as (periarrest)Post- = after (postmortem, postoperative)
36Common categories: Prefixes Related to positionEpi- = above, (epidermis, epicardium)Sub- = below (subcutaneous)Supra- = above (supraorbital)Infra- = below (infraclavicular)Intra- = inside (intraabdominal)Inter- = between (interdigital)
37Prefixes: position, continued Post- or retro- = behind, backward or after (retroverted)Pre- or pro- = before or in front (prodrome or promyelocyte)Hypo- = below or deficient (hypokinetic)
38Common categories: Prefixes Relating to number or measurementHemi- = half (hemithorax, hemiplegia)Uni- or mono- = one (unicellular)Bi- or diplo- = two (biphasic, diplopia)Tri- = three (trigeminal nerve)Quadri- = four (quadriplegia)Multi- or poly- = many (multisystem)
39Prefixes: common categories Number and measurement (continued)Hyper- = above normal (hyperactive)Micro- = smaller than normal (microcephalic)Macro- = larger than normal (macrocytic anemia)
40Prefix Categories: Direction Ab- away from (abduction)Ad- toward (adduction)Circum- around (circumcision)Trans- through (transesophageal)Exo- or extra- = outside (extracorporeal circulation or exoskeleton)Endo- inside (endodontist)
41Prefix categories: Direction Para- near (parathyroid gland)Peri- near (pericardial)Super- or ultra- excessive or above (ultrasound, superficial)
42Other popular prefixes: Brady –slow (bradycardia)Tachy- fast (tachypnea)Dys- painful, difficult, abnormal (dysfunction, dyspnea, dysrrhythmia)A- or an- = not or without (asystole)Anti- or contra- = against or opposite (contraindication)
43Other Prefixes: Mal- = bad, abnormal (maladaptive) Pan- = all (pandemic)Pseudo- = false (pseudoseizure)Syn- = joined (syndesmosis)Eu- normal (euthyroid, euthermic)
45Translate into English: He has a subconjunctival hemorrhage.Her serum digoxin level is subtheraputic despite high oral doses of the medicine.His utererostomy is dysfunctional.
46More practice words: Periarticular Supraauricular Intracranial HypertensionHyperuricemiaAntivertedPericardiocentesisTachycardia
47What the hell does that mean? We should see the dyspneic patient first.Narcotic medications make him dysphoric instead of euphoric.He’s dysequilibrium is due to alcohol intoxication.Hypotensive patients often feel dizzy.
48Which words have prefixes? GastritisAppendectomyPrenatalPedalOncologistHemithoraxParaplegiaRetrocardiac
49What are the root words? Perimortem Hypokalemia Panarthritis IntraarticularDiplococcus
50Which words describe position? SupraorbitalSubmentalRetrosternalIntrathoracicTriphasicPolymorphicArterioleCoronary
51Which are conditions? Hemochromatosis Dimorphism Celiac Intestine EnterotomyPolycythemiaAngioedemaColonoscopeIntracerebral
52Body Structure Chapter 4 Medical Terminology:Body StructureChapter 4
53General Medical Terms: Diagnosis: disease or condition found or suspected after evaluationDifferential Diagnoses: list of possible diseases that fit the clinical informationPrognosis: the likely future course of the condition, patient outcomeEtiology: cause
54Examples:My differential diagnoses include meningitis, stroke, and tricyclic antidepressant toxicity.He has fever of unknown etiology.His admission diagnosis is septic shock, but the etiology is uncertain.If he controls his hypercholesterolemia, his prognosis is good.
55General Medical Terms: Symptom: a perception of the body noticed by the patient.It may not be perceived by anyone else.Called subjective.Examples are pain, chest pressure, dizziness, abdominal cramping
56General Medical Terms: Sign: a finding or manifestation of an illness that can be perceived by someone other than the patient.Considered objective.Examples: labored respirations, pale skin, hypotension, diaphoresis (clammy sweat), swollen ankles, lacerations, alopecia
57Other general terms: Idiopathic: without a clear cause Iatrogenic: caused by medical treatment or procedures
58Levels of Organization: From smallest unit to largest:CellTissueOrganSystemOrganism
59The Cellular Level: Cytology-the study of cells Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of living thingsParts of a cell:Cell membraneCytoplasmNucleus
60Tissues: Groups of cells that perform a specialized function/activity Histology = microscopic study of cells and tissues
61Major types of tissues: Epithelial: cells that cover and line surfaces and cavities of the bodyConnective: supporting tissue between organs and tissuesMuscle: contractile tissues that bring about movementNervous: transmit electrical impulses
62Organs: Body structures with two or more tissue types. Organs have one or more specific functions.
63System:A group of organs and accessory structures that perform a specific function or interrelated functions.Examples: gastrointestinal system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system.
64Organism: Complete living entity capable of independent existence. May be unicellular (e.g. bacteria) or multicellular.
65Terms of Anatomical Position Superior/ inferiorAnterior/ posteriorMedial/ lateralSagittal (median)Coronal (frontal)Transverse (horizontal)
66Body Cavities: Cranial (contains the brain) Spinal (contains the spinal cord)Thoracic (lungs, heart, esophagus, and some major blood vessels)Abdominal (contains most of the GI tract, separated from thoracic cavity by the diaphragm)Pelvic (contains reproductive and GU organs)
67Abdominal Cavity: Quadrants Right Upper: liver, gallbladder, pancreatic head, large and small bowelsLeft Upper: stomach, spleen, pancreatic tail, large and small bowelsRight lower: appendix, large and small bowels, ovary, fallopian tube, ureterLeft lower: large and small bowels, ovary, ureter, fallopian tube
68Abdominal cavity: other terms EpigastricUmbilical/ periumbilicalHypochondriac (right and left)Suprapubic (hypogastric)Lumbar (right and left)Inguinal (iliac, right and left)