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Medical Terminology Chapters 1 through 4.

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1 Medical Terminology Chapters 1 through 4

2 Elements of a medical term:
Root word Combining form Suffixes Prefixes

3 Root Words Basic meaning of the medical word
Usually refers to a part of the body or a type of disease or procedure

4 Root Words: Examples Derm=skin Examples: dermatitis, dermatome
Card=Heart Examples: cardiologist, echocardiogram

5 Synonymous Roots: Latin roots refer to anatomy
Example: Oris (mouth), orbicularis oris Greek roots refer to disease and treatments Example: stoma (mouth), stomatitis, colostomy stoma

6 Combining Form: Vowel added to root word
Linguistically enables the two elements to be connected. Usually an “o” Usually needed when the root word ends in a consonant

7 Combining Forms: Examples
Nephrologist (a specialist in kidney diseases) Hepatocyte (a liver cell) Cystoscope (an instrument to look into the urinary bladder) These roots end in consonants

8 Combining Forms: Examples
Hypothyroidism-disease in which insufficient thyroid hormone is made Meningitis-inflammatory or infectious disease of the lining layers of the brain Vowel follows the root word but is part of the suffixes. No combining form needed.

9 Suffixes: Element added to the END of the medical term.
Modifies or changes the meaning of the word. Examples: anorexia, gastroscopy

10 Suffixes: These elements often determine the definition of the medical term. -ia or –ism means “condition of” Examples: hypoglycemia, anemia, hernia, schizophrenia, cryptorchidism, gigantism

11 Suffixes: Even more examples:
-scope means “instrument used to look at something” Examples: microscope, anoscope -ectomy means “a procedure to remove something” Examples: appendectomy, splenectomy, hemipelvectomy

12 Suffixes: Should probably look at the suffix first to determine the meaning of a word Noun vs. adjective, etc.

13 Prefixes: Element added to the beginning of a medical term
Also modifies or changes the meaning of the word.

14 Prefixes: Examples: Neurosurgeon (a surgeon who specializes in the brain & spinal cord) Hyperlipidemic (containing a high amount of lipids or fats) Anuric (making no urine)

15 Prefixes: Some Biggies
Hypo-, hyper- (not enough, too much) Hypoglycemic, hypoglycemic Intra-, inter- (inside of, in between) Intracellular, intercellular Pan-, holo- (the entire range of) Pancytopenic, holosystolic Supra-, infra- (above, below) Supraorbital, Infraorbital

16 Prefixes: It never ends. . .
Micro-, macro- (little, big) Microscopic, macroscopic Dextro-, levo- (right, left) Dextrocardia, levo-thyroxin

17 Combinations: Panhypopituitarism is
A condition involving the pituitary gland A big scoring word for a Scrabble game Something we just don’t even want to know about

18 Panhypopituitarism: Pan / hypo / pituitar / ism What is the root?
What is the suffix? What is / are the prefix (es)? What is the combining form?

19 Panhypopituitarism: Pan- = entire, all Hypo- = not enough of
Pituitar- = pituitary gland, a tiny gland in the brain that secretes lots of regulatory hormones -ism = condition of The condition in which the pituitary gland makes insufficient amounts of all of the pituitary hormones

20 Examples: Other modifiers
Gastrectomy (gastro /ectomy) Total gastrectomy Subtotal gastrectomy Hypoglycemics (hypo / glyco / emic / s) Oral hypoglycemics

21 Pleural Forms: Not just –s
-a becomes –ae (hematoma) -ax becomes –aces (pneumothorax) -en becomes –ina (foramen) -is becomes –es (prognosis) -ix or -ex becomes –ices (fornix) -ma becomes –mata (scotoma) -on becomes –a (ganglion)

22 Pleural forms-continued
-um becomes –a (bacterium) -us becomes –i (bacillus) -y becomes –ies (disability)

23 Suffix Types: There’s a million of ‘em.
Root word + suffix (if root ends in a consonant and suffix begins in a vowel) Examples: arthritis arthr / itis An inflammatory condition of the joints

24 Suffixes: more examples
Root word + suffix Nephrectomy (surgical removal of a kidney) (nephro / ectomy) Colectomy (surgical removal of a colon or large bowel) (colo / ectomy)

25 More Suffixes: Root word + combining form + suffix Examples:
Tracheostomy (trache /o/ stomy) Thoracostomy (thorac/ o/ stomy) Melanocyte (melan / o/ cyte) Erythrocyte (erythr/ o/ cyte)

26 Common Categories: Suffixes
Procedures/surgeries -ectomy, -centesis, -plasty, -tomy, -stomy Less common: -pexy, -rraphy, -lysis, -tripsy

27 Common Categories: Suffixes
Diagnostic tests -gram, -metry, -scopy, -graphy Examples: electroencephalogram Diagnostic equipment -scope, -meter, -graph Example: glucometer, endoscope

28 Common Categories: Suffixes
Conditions or diseases -edema (swelling), lymphedema -emia (blood condition), hypoxemia -algia (pain), cephalgia -genesis (origin), gluconeogenesis -iasis (abnormal condition), cholelithiasis

29 Common Categories: Suffixes
Conditions or diseases (continued): -it is (inflammation), pancreatitis -megaly (enlargement), hepatomegaly -oma (tumor, mass), hemangioma -osis (abnormal condition), hemochromatosis -pathy (abnormal condition), neuropathy

30 Common Categories: Suffixes
Conditions or diseases (continued): -penia (deficiency), osteopenia -plasia (growth), dysplasia -plegia (paralysis), hemiplegia -paresis (weakness), hemiparesis -rrhage (bursting), hemorrhage -stenosis (narrowing), arteriostenosis

31 Categories of suffixes:
Adjective forms: -ac, -al, -ic, -ous, -ior, -tic Examples: Celiac, mucous, superior, optic

32 Categories: Suffixes Noun forms: -ia, ism, -ist, -y
Examples: osteopenia, dimorphism, phlebotomist, radiology

33 Categories: Suffixes Diminutive forms (smaller than usual)
-icle, -ole,-ule Examples: arteriole, venule, tubule

34 Prefixes Word element located before the root word in a medical term
The prefix changes or modifies the meaning of the word, e.g. hypotension. (hypo / tension means low blood pressure) Multiple prefixes may be used in a given word, e.g. panhypopituitarism

35 Common categories: Prefixes
Related to time: Pre- = before (prenatal) Peri = around the same time as (periarrest) Post- = after (postmortem, postoperative)

36 Common categories: Prefixes
Related to position Epi- = above, (epidermis, epicardium) Sub- = below (subcutaneous) Supra- = above (supraorbital) Infra- = below (infraclavicular) Intra- = inside (intraabdominal) Inter- = between (interdigital)

37 Prefixes: position, continued
Post- or retro- = behind, backward or after (retroverted) Pre- or pro- = before or in front (prodrome or promyelocyte) Hypo- = below or deficient (hypokinetic)

38 Common categories: Prefixes
Relating to number or measurement Hemi- = half (hemithorax, hemiplegia) Uni- or mono- = one (unicellular) Bi- or diplo- = two (biphasic, diplopia) Tri- = three (trigeminal nerve) Quadri- = four (quadriplegia) Multi- or poly- = many (multisystem)

39 Prefixes: common categories
Number and measurement (continued) Hyper- = above normal (hyperactive) Micro- = smaller than normal (microcephalic) Macro- = larger than normal (macrocytic anemia)

40 Prefix Categories: Direction
Ab- away from (abduction) Ad- toward (adduction) Circum- around (circumcision) Trans- through (transesophageal) Exo- or extra- = outside (extracorporeal circulation or exoskeleton) Endo- inside (endodontist)

41 Prefix categories: Direction
Para- near (parathyroid gland) Peri- near (pericardial) Super- or ultra- excessive or above (ultrasound, superficial)

42 Other popular prefixes:
Brady –slow (bradycardia) Tachy- fast (tachypnea) Dys- painful, difficult, abnormal (dysfunction, dyspnea, dysrrhythmia) A- or an- = not or without (asystole) Anti- or contra- = against or opposite (contraindication)

43 Other Prefixes: Mal- = bad, abnormal (maladaptive)
Pan- = all (pandemic) Pseudo- = false (pseudoseizure) Syn- = joined (syndesmosis) Eu- normal (euthyroid, euthermic)

44 Practice words: Malabsorption Pancarditis Subnormal Subtheraputic
Suprascapular Hemorrhagic Arthroscope Pediatric gastroenterologist

45 Translate into English:
He has a subconjunctival hemorrhage. Her serum digoxin level is subtheraputic despite high oral doses of the medicine. His utererostomy is dysfunctional.

46 More practice words: Periarticular Supraauricular Intracranial
Hypertension Hyperuricemia Antiverted Pericardiocentesis Tachycardia

47 What the hell does that mean?
We should see the dyspneic patient first. Narcotic medications make him dysphoric instead of euphoric. He’s dysequilibrium is due to alcohol intoxication. Hypotensive patients often feel dizzy.

48 Which words have prefixes?
Gastritis Appendectomy Prenatal Pedal Oncologist Hemithorax Paraplegia Retrocardiac

49 What are the root words? Perimortem Hypokalemia Panarthritis
Intraarticular Diplococcus

50 Which words describe position?
Supraorbital Submental Retrosternal Intrathoracic Triphasic Polymorphic Arteriole Coronary

51 Which are conditions? Hemochromatosis Dimorphism Celiac Intestine
Enterotomy Polycythemia Angioedema Colonoscope Intracerebral

52 Body Structure Chapter 4
Medical Terminology: Body Structure Chapter 4

53 General Medical Terms:
Diagnosis: disease or condition found or suspected after evaluation Differential Diagnoses: list of possible diseases that fit the clinical information Prognosis: the likely future course of the condition, patient outcome Etiology: cause

54 Examples: My differential diagnoses include meningitis, stroke, and tricyclic antidepressant toxicity. He has fever of unknown etiology. His admission diagnosis is septic shock, but the etiology is uncertain. If he controls his hypercholesterolemia, his prognosis is good.

55 General Medical Terms:
Symptom: a perception of the body noticed by the patient. It may not be perceived by anyone else. Called subjective. Examples are pain, chest pressure, dizziness, abdominal cramping

56 General Medical Terms:
Sign: a finding or manifestation of an illness that can be perceived by someone other than the patient. Considered objective. Examples: labored respirations, pale skin, hypotension, diaphoresis (clammy sweat), swollen ankles, lacerations, alopecia

57 Other general terms: Idiopathic: without a clear cause
Iatrogenic: caused by medical treatment or procedures

58 Levels of Organization:
From smallest unit to largest: Cell Tissue Organ System Organism

59 The Cellular Level: Cytology-the study of cells
Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of living things Parts of a cell: Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus

60 Tissues: Groups of cells that perform a specialized function/activity
Histology = microscopic study of cells and tissues

61 Major types of tissues:
Epithelial: cells that cover and line surfaces and cavities of the body Connective: supporting tissue between organs and tissues Muscle: contractile tissues that bring about movement Nervous: transmit electrical impulses

62 Organs: Body structures with two or more tissue types.
Organs have one or more specific functions.

63 System: A group of organs and accessory structures that perform a specific function or interrelated functions. Examples: gastrointestinal system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system.

64 Organism: Complete living entity capable of independent existence.
May be unicellular (e.g. bacteria) or multicellular.

65 Terms of Anatomical Position
Superior/ inferior Anterior/ posterior Medial/ lateral Sagittal (median) Coronal (frontal) Transverse (horizontal)

66 Body Cavities: Cranial (contains the brain)
Spinal (contains the spinal cord) Thoracic (lungs, heart, esophagus, and some major blood vessels) Abdominal (contains most of the GI tract, separated from thoracic cavity by the diaphragm) Pelvic (contains reproductive and GU organs)

67 Abdominal Cavity: Quadrants
Right Upper: liver, gallbladder, pancreatic head, large and small bowels Left Upper: stomach, spleen, pancreatic tail, large and small bowels Right lower: appendix, large and small bowels, ovary, fallopian tube, ureter Left lower: large and small bowels, ovary, ureter, fallopian tube

68 Abdominal cavity: other terms
Epigastric Umbilical/ periumbilical Hypochondriac (right and left) Suprapubic (hypogastric) Lumbar (right and left) Inguinal (iliac, right and left)

69 Spinal regions: Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral Coccyx

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