Combining Forms of Word Roots §Word root + Vowel= Combining Form l cardi/ + o= cardi/o (heart) l gastr/ + o= gastr/o (stomach) l nephr/ + o = nephr/o (kidney)
Adding Suffixes that Begin with a Consonant §Suffixes are word endings that give medical words meaning. (Note that the combining form of the word root is used) l Examples: cardi/o + centesis = cardiocentesis or puncture of the heart gastr/o + scopy = gastroscopy or to view the stomach with an instrument nephr/o + megaly = nephromegaly or enlarged kidney
Adding Suffixes That Begin with a Vowel to Word Roots §Note that when combining the following word roots and suffixes, the combining vowel is dropped l cardi/ + oma = cardioma or tumor of the heart l gastr/ + itis = gastritis or inflammation of the stomach l nephr/ +osis = nephrosis or abnormal condition of the kidney
Test Your Understanding §Write the combining forms for the following: §Nephroscopy §Thoracotomy §Arthrocentesis §Tracheostomy
Deconstructing Medical Terms §1. Define the suffix §2. Define the prefix §3. Define the middle of the word l Example: l Gastroenteritis Itis = inflammation of Gastro= stomach (and) Enter/o=intestines
Compound Words §A combining vowel is used to link a word root to another word root l Examples: Gastr + o + enter + itis= gastroenteritis or inflammation of the stomach and intestine Oste + o + arthr + it is= osteoarthritis or inflammation of the bone and joint Encephal + o + mening + itis= encephalomeningitis or inflammation of the brain & meninges
Surgical suffixes §-centesis (puncture) §-ectomy (excision or removal) §-stomy (forming an opening) §-tomy (incision, cut into) §-tome (instrument to cut)
Prefixes §A prefix is located at the beginning of a medical term and alters its meaning (examples) l Prefixes of position (ante-, epi-, sub-, post-) l Prefixes of number/measurement (bi-, dipl-, hyper-, micro-, multi-, quadri-, tri-) l Prefixes of negation (a-, an-,im-, in-) l Prefixes of direction (ab-, ad-, circum-, extra-, endo-, para-, supra- l Other prefixes (anti-, contra-, homo-, hetero-, syn-)
Inflammation of the stomach is A.Stomatoitis B.Gastritis C.Nephritis D.Glomerulonephritis
Deconstruct The Following §Polyarthritis §Pericarditis §Gastroenteritis §Nephrectomy §Encephalitis
Answers §Inflammation of many joints §Inflammation of the surrounding tissue of the heart §Inflammation of the stomach and intestines §Excision of the kidney §Inflammation of the brain
Great Job §Test yourself with this paragraph: §The client entered the hospital with tachycardia and was diagnosed with pericarditis. A cardiocentesis was performed immediately with extraction of 25 mL of serous fluid. §What happened?
Answer §Due to inflammation of the tissue surrounding the heart, the heart had to pump more quickly to circulate blood, as the inflammation pushes on the heart. The health care provider inserted a needle into the pericardial sac (tissue surrounding the heart) and removed the fluid. This is the appropriate procedure.
A Great Job by ALL!!!!! §To use this practice PowerPoint, go to our class wiki at