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Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Bell Work 1/19  Word building  Tumor of a gland? adenoma.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Bell Work 1/19  Word building  Tumor of a gland? adenoma."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Bell Work 1/19  Word building  Tumor of a gland? adenoma adenoma  Pertaining to the head? cephalic cephalic  P/T Below the skin? hypodermic hypodermic  Red blood cell? erythrocyte erythrocyte  No textbook checkout today, they have not arrived.

2 Chapter 2 Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 2

3 3 Chapter Goals  Define terms that apply to the structural organization of the body.  Identify the body cavities and recognize the organs contained within those cavities.  Locate and identify the anatomical and clinical divisions of the abdomen.  Locate and name the anatomical divisions of the back.

4 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 4 Chapter Goals (cont’d)  Become acquainted with terms that describe positions, directions, and planes of the body.  Identify the meanings for new word elements and use them to understand medical terms.

5 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 5 Structural Organization of the Body  CELLS–  the fundamental unit of all living things  TISSUES–  a group of similar cells working together to do a specific job  ORGANS—  types of tissue combine to form an organ  SYSTEMS–  groups of organs

6 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 6  CELL—the fundamental unit of all living things Structural Organization of the Body Major parts of a cell include: chromosomes  nucleus  cell membrane  cytoplasm

7 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 7 Study Section 1– these terms are defined on page 35 Study Section 1– these terms are defined on page 35  anabolism  catabolism  cell membrane  chromosomes  cytoplasm  DNA  endoplasmic reticulum  genes  karyotype  metabolism  mitochondria  nucleus

8 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 8 Structural Organization of the Body  Cells are specialized to carry out individual functions.  Identify the following in the image  Epithelial cell  Fat cell  Nerve cell  Muscle cell

9 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 9 Structural Organization of the Body (cont’d) Types of Cells

10 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 10 Tissues  Different tissue types include:  Epithelial Tissue — tissues that line internal organs and is the outer most layer of our skin  Muscle Tissue – three types of muscle tissue  Involuntary  Voluntary  Cardiac  Connective Tissue – fat, cartilage, bone and blood  Nerve Tissue – conducts impulses Structural Organization of the Body

11 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 11 Structural Organization of the Body  Organs: Different types of tissue combine to form an organ  The stomach is composed of muscle, nerve, and epithelial tissues.  Internal organs is called viscera  Systems: Groups of organs working together to perform complex functions  Page 37 has a list of systems

12 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 12 Vocabulary Vocabulary  adipose tissue  collection of fat cells  Cartilage  connective tissue that attaches bones at joints  epithelial cells  skin cells that cover the body and internal surfaces of organs  Histologist  Specialist in the study of tissues. Hist = tissue  Larynx  “Voice box” – the upper part of the trachea

13 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 13 Vocabulary  pharynx  throat  pituitary gland  Gland at the base of the brain, often referred to as the master gland  thyroid gland  Gland that surrounds the trachea  trachea  “windpipe” Tube that leads from the throat to the bronchial tubes

14 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14 Body Cavities and Organs CranialThoracicAbdominalPelvicSpinal Brain Brain Lungs and heart Lungs and heart Stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, pancreas Stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, pancreas Portions of the small and large intestines, bladder, rectum Portions of the small and large intestines, bladder, rectum Nerves of the spinal cord Nerves of the spinal cord Cavity Organ(s)

15 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 15 Vocabulary  Ureter  Tube that leads from the kidney to the bladder  Urethra  Tube from the bladder to the outside of the body  Uterus  The womb  Viscera  Internal organs

16 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 16 Review  Cystoscopy:  A. Study of cells  B. Visual examination of cells C. Removal of a sac of fluid  D. Removal of the urinary bladder  E. Visual examination of the urinary bladder  Electroencephalogram:  A. Record of electricity in the brain  B. Record of electricity in the heart C. X-ray of the brain  D. Record of sound waves in the brain  E. X-ray of the heart and brain  Cancerous tumor:  A. Hematoma  B. Adenoma  C. Carcinoma  D. Carcinogenic  E. Neurotomy  Pain in a joint:  A. Ostealgia  B. Arthritis  C. Osteoarthritis  D. Arthroalgia  E. Arthralgia

17 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 17 Body Cavities  Body cavities are the spaces within the body that contain internal organs (viscera).

18 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 18 QUICK QUIZ: QUICK QUIZ: 1.Which body cavity contains the pleural cavity and the mediastinum? A.cranial B.pelvic C.spinal D.thoracic

19 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved Which body cavity contains the peritoneum? A.abdominal B.pelvic C.spinal D.thoracic QUICK QUIZ: (cont’d) QUICK QUIZ: (cont’d)

20 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 20 Bell work 1/24  Match the parts of the body with their correct descriptions: a.adipose tissuee.pleura b.cartilagef.trachea c.larynxg.ureter d.pharynxh.urethra 1. Throat 2. Collection of fat cells 3. Windpipe 4. Tube from the kidney to the urinary bladder 5. Voice box 6. Membrane surrounding the lungs 7. Flexible connective tissue at joints 8. Tube from the urinary bladder to outside of body

21 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 21 Organs of the Abdominopelvic and Thoracic Cavities

22 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 22 Study Section 3 Study Section 3  abdominal cavity  Space below the chest that contains the liver, stomach, gallbladder and intestines  cranial cavity  Space in the head that contains the brain, skull  diaphragm  Muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

23 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 23 Study Section 3  dorsal (posterior)  Pertaining to the back  mediastinum  Centrally located space between the lungs  pleura  Membrane surrounding each lung  pleural cavity  Space between the pleural membrane

24 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 24 Study Section 3  spinal cavity  Space within the spinal column (backbone) and contains the spinal cord.  thoracic cavity  Space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs  ventral (anterior)  Pertaining to the front

25 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 25 Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants Regions Regions  Right Hypochondriac region  Left Hypochondriac region  Epigastric region  Right Lumbar region  Left Lumbar region  Umbilical region  Right Inguinal region  Left Inguinal region  Hypogastric region

26 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 26 Abdominopelvic Regions (cont’d)

27 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 27 Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants  Quadrants  Right upper quadrant (RUQ)  Left upper quadrant (LUQ)  Right lower quadrant (RLQ)  Left lower quadrant (LLQ)

28 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 28 Abdominopelvic Quadrants

29 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 29 Abdominopelvic Quadrants

30 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 30 Anatomical Divisions of the Back  Cervical  Neck region. There are 7 cervical vertebrae  Thoracic  Chest region. There are 12 thoracic vertebrae  Lumbar  Loin or flank region. There are 5 lumbar vertebrae  Sacral  Five bones that fuse together form the sacrum.  Coccygeal  The tailbone. A small bone of four fused pieces

31 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 31 Anatomical Divisions of the Back

32 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 32 QUICK QUIZ: QUICK QUIZ: 3.Name the abdominopelvic region that is located in the central region near the navel. A.inguinal B.umbilical C.lumbar D.hypochondriac

33 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 33 QUICK QUIZ: (cont’d) 4.Name the abdominopelvic region that is located in the lower middle below the umbilical region. A.inguinal B.epigastric C.lumbar D.hypogastric

34 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 34 Bell Work 1.24  What area of the spine is at the neck?  Cervical spine  What word means incision into a bone?  Osteotomy  What cavity surrounds the lungs  Pleural cavity

35 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 35 Positions, Directions, and Planes of the Body  Positional and Directional Terms  Anterior (ventral) -- the front side of the body  Posterior (dorsal) -- the back side of the body  Deep -- away from the surface  Superficial -- on the surface  Proximal -- near the point of attachment  Distal -- far from the point of attachment  Inferior -- below another structure  Superior -- above another structure

36 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 36 Positional and Directional Terms

37 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 37 Positions, Directions, and Planes of the Body  Positional and Directional Terms (cont’d)  Medial – pertaining to the middle  Lateral – pertaining to the side  Supine – lying on the back  Prone – lying on the belly

38 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 38 Positions, Directions, and Planes of the Body (cont'd)  Planes of the Body – an imaginary flat surface  Frontal (coronal)  a vertical plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions  Sagittal (lateral)  a lengthwise vertical plane dividing the body into right and left sides  Transverse (cross-sectional or axial)  a plane running across the body parallel to the ground

39 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 39 Positional and Directional Terms

40 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 40 Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes COMBINING FORMS abdomin/oabdomen adip/ofat anter/ofront bol/oto cast (throw) Combining FormMeaning

41 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 41 Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes (cont’d) Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS cervic/oneck (of the body or uterus) chondr/ocartilage chrom/ocolor coccyg/ococcyx (tailbone) Combining FormMeaning

42 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 42 Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes (cont’d) Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS crani/oskull cyt/ocell dist/ofar, distant dors/oback portion of the body Combining FormMeaning

43 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 43 Combining Forms, Suffixes and Prefixes (cont’d) Combining Forms, Suffixes and Prefixes (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS hist/otissue ili/oilium (of the pelvic bone) inguin/ogroin kary/onucleus Combining FormMeaning

44 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 44 Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS later/oside lumb/olower back medi/omiddle nucle/onucleus Combining FormMeaning

45 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 45 COMBINING FORMS pelv/ipelvis poster/oback, behind proxim/onearest sacr/osacrum Combining FormMeaning Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes (cont’d) Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes (cont’d)

46 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 46 Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes (cont’d) Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS sarc/oflesh spin/ospine, backbone thel/onipple thorac/ochest trache/otrachea, windpipe Combining FormMeaning

47 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 47 COMBINING FORMS umbilic/onavel, umbilicus ventr/obelly side of the body vertebro vertebra(e), backbone(s) viscer/ointernal organs Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes (cont’d) Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes (cont’d) Combining FormMeaning

48 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 48 PREFIXES ana-up cata-down epi-above hypo-below inter-between meta-change Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes (cont’d) Combining FormMeaning

49 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 49 Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes (cont’d) SUFFIXES -eal pertaining to -iac pertaining to -ior pertaining to -ism process, condition -ose pertaining to, full of -plasm formation -somes bodies -type picture, classification Suffix Meaning

50 Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 50 QUICK QUIZ: QUICK QUIZ: 5.Which term means process of cutting the skull? A.thoracotomy B.craniotomy C.diskectomy D.arthroscopy


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