Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 2: Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole
2 In this chapter you will Define terms that apply to the structural organization of the body.Identify the body cavities and recognize the organs contained within those cavities.Locate and identify the anatomical and clinical divisions of the abdomen.
3 In this chapter you will Become acquainted with terms that describe positions, directions, and planes of the body.Identify meanings for new word elements and use them to understand new medical terms.
4 Structural Organization of the Body Major Parts of a Cell (p. 32) The CellFundamental unit of all living thingsFound everywhere in the human body1. Cell Membranesurrounds and protects the cellregulates what passes into and out of the cell2. Nucleusthe control center of the celldetermines the structure and function of the cell3. Chromosomesrod-like structures within the nucleusthis is where genes are locatedGenes are composed of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)DNA regulates the activities of the cell4. Cytoplasmall the material outside the nucleus and enclosed by the cell membraneThe cytoplasm contains:4a. Mitochondriasmall sausage shaped bodies that produce energy for the cellpower house of the cell4b. Endoplasmic reticuluma network of canals within the cellwhere proteins are manufactured for use in the cell
6 Types of Cells (p. 36) Muscle cell Nerve cell Epithelial cell Fat cell Cells are specialized throughout the body to carry out their individual functions.For example:A. Muscle cellLong and slendercontain fibers that aid in contracting and relaxingB. Nerve cellLong withvarious fibrous extensions that aid in carrying impulsesC. Epithelial cellskin cellFlat and squareprovides protectionD. Fat cellcontains large empty spaces for fat storageThese are just a few of the many different types of cells in the bodyEpithelial cellFat cell
7 Tissues A group of similar cells working together to do a specific job Epithelial tissue – all tissues that cover the outside of the body and line the inner surfaces of internal organs.Muscle TissueConnective tissue – fat, cartilage, bone, blood.Nerve tissueEpithelial tissueLocated all over the bodyForms the linings of internal organs and the outer surface of the skinMuscle TissueVoluntary muscle found in the arms and legs and other parts of the body that are under conscious controlInvoluntary muscle is found in the digestive system and other organs that are not under conscious controlConnective tissueExamples: fat, cartilage, bone, bloodNerve tissueConducts impulses all over the body
13 Diaphragmseparates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
14 3. Abdominal Cavity – page 39 StomachSmall and large intestinesSpleenPancreasLiverGallbladderAbdominalCavity
15 4. Pelvic Cavity – page 39 Portions of the small and large intestines RectumOrgans of the urinary systemOrgans of the reproductive systemPelvicCavity
16 5. Spinal Cavity – page 39Nerves of the spinal cordSpinalCavity
17 Dorsal (posterior) Cavities Cavities in the back of the bodyCranialSpinal
18 Ventral (anterior) Cavities Cavities in the front of the bodyThoracicAbdominalPelvic
19 Abdominopelvic Regions (p. 44) R&L HypochondriacEpigastricR&L LumbarUmbilicalR&L InguinalHyopgastricDoctors divide the abdominopelvic area into nine regionsHypochondriac regionsTwo upper right and left regions below the cartilage of the ribs that extend over the abdomenEpigastric RegionRegion above the stomachLumbar RegionTwo middle right and left regions near the waistUmbilical RegionRegion of the umbilicus or navelInguinal RegionTwo lower right and left regions near the groinHyopgastric RegionLower middle region below the umbilical region
24 Divisions of the back and spinal column (p. 46) Cervical (7)Thoracic (12)1. CervicalNeck regionthere are 7 cervical vertebrae (C1 – C7)2. ThoracicChest regionthere are 12 thoracic vertebrae (T1 – T12)Each vertebrae is joined to a rib3. LumbarLower backThere are 5 lumbar vertebrae (L1 – L5)4. Sacral5 bones (S1 – S5) that are fused to form one bone (sacrum)5. CoccygealTailbonesmall bone composed of 4 fused piecesLumbar (5)Sacral (5)Coccygeal (4)
25 Positional and Directional Terms (p. 48) Deep: Away from the surfaceExample: The stab wound penetrated deep into the abdomenSuperficial: On the surfaceExample: Superficial veins can be viewed through the skinProximal: Near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structureExample: The proximal end of the upper arm bone joins with the shoulder boneDistal: Far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structureExample: At its distal end, the humerus joins with the lower arm bones at the elbowInferior: Below another structureExample: The feet are at the inferior part of the body, they are inferior to the kneesCaudal: pertaining to the tail mans inferiorSuperior: Above another structureExample: the head is superior to the neck of the bodyCephalic: pertaining to the head means superiorMedial: pertaining to the middleExample: The fifth finger is medial to the other fingersLateral to the side:Example: The thumb is lateral to the other fingersAnterior: Front side of the bodyExample: the forehead is on the anterior side of the bodyPosterior: The back side of the bodyExample: The back of the head is posterior to the face