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Chapter 2: Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole

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1 Chapter 2: Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole

2 In this chapter you will
Define terms that apply to the structural organization of the body. Identify the body cavities and recognize the organs contained within those cavities. Locate and identify the anatomical and clinical divisions of the abdomen.

3 In this chapter you will
Become acquainted with terms that describe positions, directions, and planes of the body. Identify meanings for new word elements and use them to understand new medical terms.

4 Structural Organization of the Body Major Parts of a Cell (p. 32)
The Cell Fundamental unit of all living things Found everywhere in the human body 1. Cell Membrane surrounds and protects the cell regulates what passes into and out of the cell 2. Nucleus the control center of the cell determines the structure and function of the cell 3. Chromosomes rod-like structures within the nucleus this is where genes are located Genes are composed of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) DNA regulates the activities of the cell 4. Cytoplasm all the material outside the nucleus and enclosed by the cell membrane The cytoplasm contains: 4a. Mitochondria small sausage shaped bodies that produce energy for the cell power house of the cell 4b. Endoplasmic reticulum a network of canals within the cell where proteins are manufactured for use in the cell


6 Types of Cells (p. 36) Muscle cell Nerve cell Epithelial cell Fat cell
Cells are specialized throughout the body to carry out their individual functions. For example: A. Muscle cell Long and slender contain fibers that aid in contracting and relaxing B. Nerve cell Long with various fibrous extensions that aid in carrying impulses C. Epithelial cell skin cell Flat and square provides protection D. Fat cell contains large empty spaces for fat storage These are just a few of the many different types of cells in the body Epithelial cell Fat cell

7 Tissues A group of similar cells working together to do a specific job
Epithelial tissue – all tissues that cover the outside of the body and line the inner surfaces of internal organs. Muscle Tissue Connective tissue – fat, cartilage, bone, blood. Nerve tissue Epithelial tissue Located all over the body Forms the linings of internal organs and the outer surface of the skin Muscle Tissue Voluntary muscle found in the arms and legs and other parts of the body that are under conscious control Involuntary muscle is found in the digestive system and other organs that are not under conscious control Connective tissue Examples: fat, cartilage, bone, blood Nerve tissue Conducts impulses all over the body


9 Organs Structures composed of several kinds of tissue Heart Stomach
Viscera: internal organs

10 Systems Groups of organs working together to perform complex functions
Cardiovascular System Digestive System

11 1. Cranial Cavity – page 39 Brain Pituitary gland Cranial Cavity

12 2. Thoracic Cavity – page 39 Pleural Cavity Lungs Mediastinum Heart
Esophagus Trachea Bronchial tubes Thymus gland Aorta Thoracic Cavity

13 Diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities

14 3. Abdominal Cavity – page 39
Stomach Small and large intestines Spleen Pancreas Liver Gallbladder Abdominal Cavity

15 4. Pelvic Cavity – page 39 Portions of the small and large intestines
Rectum Organs of the urinary system Organs of the reproductive system Pelvic Cavity

16 5. Spinal Cavity – page 39 Nerves of the spinal cord Spinal Cavity

17 Dorsal (posterior) Cavities
Cavities in the back of the body Cranial Spinal

18 Ventral (anterior) Cavities
Cavities in the front of the body Thoracic Abdominal Pelvic

19 Abdominopelvic Regions (p. 44)
R&L Hypochondriac Epigastric R&L Lumbar Umbilical R&L Inguinal Hyopgastric Doctors divide the abdominopelvic area into nine regions Hypochondriac regions Two upper right and left regions below the cartilage of the ribs that extend over the abdomen Epigastric Region Region above the stomach Lumbar Region Two middle right and left regions near the waist Umbilical Region Region of the umbilicus or navel Inguinal Region Two lower right and left regions near the groin Hyopgastric Region Lower middle region below the umbilical region

20 Abdominopelvic Quadrants (p. 45)
Right Upper Gallbaldder Liver Right lobe Parts of Pancreas Small Intestines Large Intestines

21 Abdominopelvic Quadrants (p. 45)
Left Upper Stomach Liver Left lobe Parts of Pancreas Small Intestines Large Intestines

22 Abdominopelvic Quadrants (p. 45)
Right Lower R ovary R fallopian tube Appendix R ureter Parts of Small Intestine Large Intestine

23 Abdominopelvic Quadrants (p. 45)
Left Lower L ovary L fallopian tube L ureter Parts of Small Intestine Large Intestine

24 Divisions of the back and spinal column (p. 46)
Cervical (7) Thoracic (12) 1. Cervical Neck region there are 7 cervical vertebrae (C1 – C7) 2. Thoracic Chest region there are 12 thoracic vertebrae (T1 – T12) Each vertebrae is joined to a rib 3. Lumbar Lower back There are 5 lumbar vertebrae (L1 – L5) 4. Sacral 5 bones (S1 – S5) that are fused to form one bone (sacrum) 5. Coccygeal Tailbone small bone composed of 4 fused pieces Lumbar (5) Sacral (5) Coccygeal (4)

25 Positional and Directional Terms (p. 48)
Deep: Away from the surface Example: The stab wound penetrated deep into the abdomen Superficial: On the surface Example: Superficial veins can be viewed through the skin Proximal: Near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure Example: The proximal end of the upper arm bone joins with the shoulder bone Distal: Far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure Example: At its distal end, the humerus joins with the lower arm bones at the elbow Inferior: Below another structure Example: The feet are at the inferior part of the body, they are inferior to the knees Caudal: pertaining to the tail mans inferior Superior: Above another structure Example: the head is superior to the neck of the body Cephalic: pertaining to the head means superior Medial: pertaining to the middle Example: The fifth finger is medial to the other fingers Lateral to the side: Example: The thumb is lateral to the other fingers Anterior: Front side of the body Example: the forehead is on the anterior side of the body Posterior: The back side of the body Example: The back of the head is posterior to the face

26 Planes of the Body (p )

27 Planes of the Body (p. 48-49) 1. Frontal (coronal) Plane
Vertical plane Divides the body into anterior posterior Frontal (Coronal) Plane

28 2. Sagittal (lateral) Plane
Vertical plane Divides the body or structure into right side left side Sagittal (Lateral) Plane

29 3. Transverse (cross-sectional) Plane
Horizontal plane Divides the body or structure into upper half lower half Transverse (cross-sectional) Plane

30 Chapter 2 Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole
Pages 50-53

31 abdominal abdomin/o: abdomen -al Pertaining to the abdomen

32 adipose adip/o: fat -ose: pertaining to Pertaining to fat

33 anterior anter/o: front -ior: pertaining to Pertaining to the front

34 anabolism ana-: up bol/o: to cast (throw) -ism: process
Process of casting up The building-up or synthesizing process in a cell.

35 cervical cervic/o: neck -al Pertaining to the neck

36 chondroma chondr/o: cartilage -oma Tumor of cartilage Benign

37 chondrosarcoma chondr/o Sarc/o: flesh -oma Flesh tumor of cartilage

38 chromosomes chrom/o: color -some: body Color bodies
They absorb the color of dyes used to stain the cell Contain genetic material Located in the nucleus

39 coccygeal coccyg/o: coccyx -al Pertaining to the Coccyx (tailbone)

40 craniotomy crani/o: skull -tomy Incision of the skull

41 cytoplasm cyt/o -plasm: formation Formation (contents) of the cell

42 distal dist/o: far, distant -al Pertaining to far
From the beginning of a structure

43 dorsal dors/o: back -al Pertaining to the back

44 histology hist/o: tissue -logy Study of tissues

45 iliac ili/o: ilium -ac Pertaining to the ilium, part of the pelvic bone.

46 inguinal inguin/o: groin -al Pertaining to the groin

47 karyotype kary/o: nucleus -type: classification, picture
Picture or classification of the nucleus And its chromosomes

48 lateral later/o: side -al Pertaining to the side

49 lumbosacral lumb/o: lower back sacr/o: sacrum -al
Pertaining to the lower back and sacrum

50 medial medi/o: middle -al Pertaining to the middle

51 nucleic nucle/o: nucleus -ic Pertaining to the nucleus

52 pelvic pelv/o: hip, pelvic cavity -ic
Pertaining to the hip or pelvic cavity

53 posterior poster/o: back -ior Pertaining to the back

54 proximal proxim/o: near -al Pertaining to near A structure

55 sacral sacr/o: sacrum -al Pertaining to the sacrum

56 sarcoma sarc/o -oma Tumor of flesh malignant

57 spinal spin/o: spine -al Pertaining to the spine

58 epithelial cell epi- thel/o: nipple -al Pertaining to upon a nipple
Skin cell

59 thoracic thorac/o: chest -ic Pertaining to the chest

60 thoracotomy thorac/o -tomy Incision of the chest.

61 tracheal trache/o: trachea -al Pertaining to the trachea

62 umbilical umbilic/o: navel -al Pertaining to the navel

63 ventral ventr/o: belly side of the body -al
Pertaining to the belly side of the body

64 vertebral vertebr/o: vertebrae -al Pertaining to vertebrae

65 visceral viscer/o: internal organs -al Pertaining to internal organs

66 anabolic ana- bol/o -ic Pertaining to casting up
building up substances (proteins) in the cell

67 catabolism cata-: down bol/o -ism Process of casting down
breaking down material in the cell to release energy Mitichondria

68 epigastric epi- gastr/o -ic Pertaining to above the stomach

69 hypochondriac regions
chondr/o -iac Pertaining to below (rib) cartilages

70 intervertebral inter-: between vertebr/o -al
Pertaining to between the vertebrae

71 metabolism meta-: change bol/o -ism Process of casting change
Anabolism and catabolism

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