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Chapter 2: Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 2: Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole

3 In this chapter you will 1. Define terms that apply to the structural organization of the body. 2. Identify the body cavities and recognize the organs contained within those cavities. 3. Locate and identify the anatomical and clinical divisions of the abdomen.

4 In this chapter you will 4. Become acquainted with terms that describe positions, directions, and planes of the body. 4. Identify meanings for new word elements and use them to understand new medical terms.

5 Structural Organization of the Body Major Parts of a Cell (p. 32)

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7 Types of Cells (p. 36) Muscle cellNerve cell Epithelial cellFat cell

8 Tissues A group of similar cells working together to do a specific job –Epithelial tissue – all tissues that cover the outside of the body and line the inner surfaces of internal organs. –Muscle Tissue –Connective tissue – fat, cartilage, bone, blood. –Nerve tissue

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10 Organs Structures composed of several kinds of tissue –Heart –Stomach Viscera: internal organs

11 Systems Groups of organs working together to perform complex functions –Cardiovascular System –Digestive System

12 1. Cranial Cavity – page 39 Brain Pituitary gland Cranial Cavity

13 2. Thoracic Cavity – page 39 Pleural Cavity –Lungs Mediastinum –Heart –Esophagus –Trachea –Bronchial tubes –Thymus gland –Aorta Thoracic Cavity

14 Diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities

15 3. Abdominal Cavity – page 39 Stomach Small and large intestines Spleen Pancreas Liver Gallbladder Abdominal Cavity

16 4. Pelvic Cavity – page 39 Portions of the small and large intestines Rectum Organs of the urinary system Organs of the reproductive system Pelvic Cavity

17 5. Spinal Cavity – page 39 Nerves of the spinal cord Spinal Cavity

18 Dorsal (posterior) Cavities Cavities in the back of the body –Cranial –Spinal

19 Ventral (anterior) Cavities Cavities in the front of the body –Thoracic –Abdominal –Pelvic

20 Abdominopelvic Regions (p. 44) R&L Hypochondriac Epigastric R&L Lumbar Umbilical R&L Inguinal Hyopgastric

21 Abdominopelvic Quadrants (p. 45) Right Upper –Gallbaldder –Liver  Right lobe –Parts of  Pancreas  Small Intestines  Large Intestines

22 Abdominopelvic Quadrants (p. 45) Left Upper –Stomach –Liver  Left lobe –Parts of  Pancreas  Small Intestines  Large Intestines

23 Abdominopelvic Quadrants (p. 45) Right Lower –R ovary –R fallopian tube –Appendix –R ureter –Parts of  Small Intestine  Large Intestine

24 Abdominopelvic Quadrants (p. 45) Left Lower –L ovary –L fallopian tube –L ureter –Parts of  Small Intestine  Large Intestine

25 Divisions of the back and spinal column (p. 46) Cervical (7) Thoracic (12) Lumbar (5) Sacral (5) Coccygeal (4)

26 Positional and Directional Terms (p. 48)

27 Planes of the Body (p )

28 Planes of the Body (p ) 1. Frontal (coronal) Plane Vertical plane Divides the body into –anterior –posterior Frontal (Coronal) Plane

29 2. Sagittal (lateral) Plane Vertical plane Divides the body or structure into –right side –left side Sagittal (Lateral) Plane

30 3. Transverse (cross-sectional) Plane Horizontal plane Divides the body or structure into –upper half –lower half Transverse ( cross-sectional ) Plane

31 Chapter 2 Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole Pages 50-53

32 abdominal abdomin/o: abdomen -al Pertaining to the abdomen

33 adipose adip/o: fat -ose: pertaining to Pertaining to fat

34 anterior anter/o: front -ior: pertaining to Pertaining to the front

35 anabolism ana-: up bol/o: to cast (throw) -ism: process Process of casting up –The building-up or synthesizing process in a cell.

36 cervical cervic/o: neck -al Pertaining to the neck

37 chondroma chondr/o: cartilage -oma Tumor of cartilage –Benign

38 chondrosarcoma chondr/o Sarc/o: flesh -oma Flesh tumor of cartilage –Malignant

39 chromosomes chrom/o: color -some: body Color bodies –They absorb the color of dyes used to stain the cell –Contain genetic material –Located in the nucleus

40 coccygeal coccyg/o: coccyx -al Pertaining to the Coccyx (tailbone)

41 craniotomy crani/o: skull -tomy Incision of the skull

42 cytoplasm cyt/o -plasm: formation Formation (contents) of the cell

43 distal dist/o: far, distant -al Pertaining to far –From the beginning of a structure

44 dorsal dors/o: back -al Pertaining to the back

45 histology hist/o: tissue -logy Study of tissues

46 iliac ili/o: ilium -ac Pertaining to the ilium, part of the pelvic bone.

47 inguinal inguin/o: groin -al Pertaining to the groin

48 karyotype kary/o: nucleus -type: classification, picture Picture or classification of the nucleus –And its chromosomes

49 lateral later/o: side -al Pertaining to the side

50 lumbosacral lumb/o: lower back sacr/o: sacrum -al Pertaining to the lower back and sacrum

51 medial medi/o: middle -al Pertaining to the middle

52 nucleic nucle/o: nucleus -ic Pertaining to the nucleus

53 pelvic pelv/o: hip, pelvic cavity -ic Pertaining to the hip or pelvic cavity

54 posterior poster/o: back -ior Pertaining to the back

55 proximal proxim/o: near -al Pertaining to near –A structure

56 sacral sacr/o: sacrum -al Pertaining to the sacrum

57 sarcoma sarc/o -oma Tumor of flesh –malignant

58 spinal spin/o: spine -al Pertaining to the spine

59 epithelial cell epi- thel/o: nipple -al Pertaining to upon a nipple –Skin cell

60 thoracic thorac/o: chest -ic Pertaining to the chest

61 thoracotomy thorac/o -tomy Incision of the chest.

62 tracheal trache/o: trachea -al Pertaining to the trachea

63 umbilical umbilic/o: navel -al Pertaining to the navel

64 ventral ventr/o: belly side of the body -al Pertaining to the belly side of the body

65 vertebral vertebr/o: vertebrae -al Pertaining to vertebrae

66 visceral viscer/o: internal organs -al Pertaining to internal organs

67 anabolic ana- bol/o -ic Pertaining to casting up –building up substances (proteins) in the cell

68 catabolism cata-: down bol/o -ism Process of casting down –breaking down material in the cell to release energy –Mitichondria

69 epigastric epi- gastr/o -ic Pertaining to above the stomach

70 hypochondriac regions hypo- chondr/o -iac Pertaining to below (rib) cartilages

71 intervertebral inter-: between vertebr/o -al Pertaining to between the vertebrae

72 metabolism meta-: change bol/o -ism Process of casting change –Anabolism and catabolism


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