Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Body Cavities and Directional Terms

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Body Cavities and Directional Terms"— Presentation transcript:

1 Body Cavities and Directional Terms

2 Anatomical Position Body is standing, arms at side, palms facing forward, head and feet forward This is the position the body is in when using directional terminology Ipsilateral: on the same side Contralateral: on the opposite side

3 Body Cavities The body is not solid
Contains 2 major cavities which are then subdivided Ventral Cavity: includes the thoracic (or chest) cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity Dorsal Cavity: includes cranial and spinal cavities

4 Thoracic Cavity Thoracic Cavity: contains a RIGHT and LEFT PLEURAL cavity; midpoint is the MEDIASTINUM Organs in the mediastinum: heart, trachea, right and left bronchi, esophagus, thymus, blood vessels, parts of the lymph system, and nerves Organs in the pleural cavity: right and left lungs

5 Abdominopelvic Cavity
Has upper portion (Abdominal cavity) and lower portion (pelvic cavity) Abdominal Cavity contains: liver, gall bladder, stomach, pancreas, intestines, spleen, kidneys, ureters Pelvic Cavity contains: bladders, certain reproductive organs, colon, rectum In females: uterus, uterine tubes, ovaries In males: prostate gland, seminal vesicle, vas deferens

6 Dorsal Cavity Cranial cavity lies in the skull and houses the brain
Spinal Cavity lies in spinal column and houses the spinal cord

7 Important Terms Parietal: actual wall of the body cavity or the membrane that lines its surface Visceral: not the wall or lining of the body cavity but the membranes that cover the organs, or viscera, within the cavity

8 Body Regions Body can be divided into two major portions: axial and appendicular Axial includes: head, neck, torso and trunk Appendicular includes: upper and lower extremities and their connections (pelvic and pectoral girdles) Each of these are divided into regions

9 Body Region Terminology
Diagram and Table for Terminology***

10 Abdominal Region Divided into 9 regions to help locate organs
Right Hypochondriac: right lobe of liver and gall bladder Epigastric: part of right and left liver lobes, portion of stomach Left Hypochondriac: small portion of stomach and large intestines Right Lumbar: portions of large and small intestines

11 Abdominal Region Umbilical: transverse colon, loops of small intestines Left Lumbar: small intestine, portion of colon Right Iliac: cecum, parts of small intestines Hypogastric: small intestines, urinary bladder, appendix Left Iliac: portions of small intestines, colon

12 Abdominopelvic Quadrants
Helps to describe the site of abdominal pain or locate pathology Horizontal and vertical line passing through the umbilicus (navel) divides into Right Upper Quadrant Left Upper Quadrant Right Lower Quadrant Left Lower Quadrant

13 Directional Terms Superior: toward the head; upper/above
Inferior: toward the feet; lower/below Anterior: front; in front of Posterior: back; in back of Medial: Toward the midline of the body Lateral: toward the side; away from the midline Proximal: toward or nearest to the trunk Distal: away from the trunk Superficial: near the surface Deep: farther from the body surface

14 Organ Terms Lumen: the hollow portion of an organ
Central: near the center Peripheral: near the boundary or edge Medullary: inner region of an organ Cortical: outer region or layer of an organ Basal: widest point of an organ Apical: narrowest tip of an organ

15 Body Planes and Sections
Sagittal Plane: lengthwise plane running from front to back; divides into left and right Coronal Plane: lengthwise plane running from left to right; divides into front and back (also called frontal plane) Transverse Plane: crosswise plane; divides into upper and lower quadrants (also called horizontal plane)

16 Body Types Somatype: used to describe body build or physique
ENDOMORPH: heavy, rounded physique characterized large accumulations of fat in trunk and thighs MESOMORPH: muscular physique ECTOMORPH: thin, fragile physique characterized by little body fat accumulation

17 Homeostasis Constant state maintained by the body
Maintaining a constant internal environment inside the body by the body systems P.23 Figure 1-13

Download ppt "Body Cavities and Directional Terms"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google