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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM CHAPTER # 7(c)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Appendicular Skeleton Bones of the limbs and their girdles Pectoral girdle attaches the upper limbs to the body trunk Pelvic girdle secures the lower limbs
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder Girdle) Clavicles and the scapulae Attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton Provide attachment sites for muscles that move the upper limbs PLAY A&P Flix™: Bones of the pectoral girdle
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.24a Clavicle Acromio- clavicular joint Scapula (a)Articulated pectoral girdle
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Clavicles (Collarbones) Flattened acromial (lateral) end articulates with the scapula Cone-shaped sternal (medial) end articulates with the sternum Act as braces to hold the scapulae and arms out laterally
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.24b Acromial (lateral) end (b)Right clavicle, superior view Posterior Sternal (medial) end Anterior
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Scapulae (Shoulder Blades) Situated on the dorsal surface of rib cage, between ribs 2 and 7 Flat and triangular, with three borders and three angles Seven large fossae, named according to location
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.25a Acromion Coracoid process Suprascapular notch Superior border Superior angle Subscapular fossa Medial border Inferior angle Glenoid cavity Lateral border (a) Right scapula, anterior aspect
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.25b Superior angle Medial border Coracoid process Suprascapular notch Acromion Glenoid cavity at lateral angle Lateral border Infraspinous fossa Spine (b) Right scapula, posterior aspect Supraspinous fossa
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.25c Coracoid process Glenoid cavity Acromion Infraspinous fossa Spine (c) Right scapula, lateral aspect Infraglenoid tubercle Supraglenoid tubercle Supraspinous fossa Subscapular fossa Inferior angle Supraspinous fossa Infraspinous fossa Subscapular fossa PosteriorAnterior
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Upper Limb 30 bones form the skeletal framework of each upper limb Arm Humerus Forearm Radius and ulna Hand 8 carpal bones in the wrist 5 metacarpal bones in the palm 14 phalanges in the fingers
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Humerus Largest, longest bone of upper limb Articulates superiorly with glenoid cavity of scapula Articulates inferiorly with radius and ulna
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.26a Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Inter- tubercular sulcus Lateral supracondylar ridge Radial fossa Capitulum Head of humerus Anatomical neck Deltoid tuberosity Coronoid fossa Medial epicondyle Trochlea (a) Anterior view
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bones of the Forearm Ulna Medial bone in forearm Forms the major portion of the elbow joint with the humerus Radius Lateral bone in forearm Head articulates with capitulum of humerus and with radial notch of ulna Interosseous membrane connects the radius and ulna along their entire length
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.27a-b Radial notch of the ulna Olecranon process Trochlear notch Coronoid process Proximal radioulnar joint Distal radioulnar joint Styloid process of radius Radius Neck of radius Head of radius Ulnar notch of the radius Head of ulna Styloid process of ulna Interosseous membrane Ulna Head Neck Radial tuberosity Radius Styloid process of radius (a) Anterior view(b) Posterior view
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.27c-d (c) Proximal portion of ulna, lateral view Olecranon process Trochlear notch Coronoid process Radial notch View (d) Distal ends of the radius and ulna at the wrist Ulnar notch of radius Head of ulna Styloid process Articulation for scaphoid Articulation for lunate Styloid process View
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.26c-d Coronoid fossa Radius Radial tuberosity Head of radius Capitulum Trochlea (c) Anterior view at the elbow region Humerus Medial epicondyle Coronoid process of ulna Ulna Radial notch Olecranon fossa Ulna Olecranon process Medial epicondyle (d) Posterior view of extended elbow Humerus Lateral epicondyle Head Radius Neck
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hand: Carpus Eight bones in two rows Proximal row Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform proximally Distal row Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate distally Only scaphoid and lunate articulate with radius to form wrist joint
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hand: Metacarpus and Phalanges Metacarpus Five metacarpal bones (#1 to #5) form the palm Phalanges Each finger (digit), except the thumb, has three phalanges—distal, middle, and proximal Fingers are numbered 1–5, beginning with the thumb (pollex) Thumb has no middle phalanx
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.28a-b Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Phalanges Carpals Radius Proximal Middle Distal Triquetrum Lunate Capitate Hamate Pisiform Metacarpals Carpals (b) Posterior view of left hand Ulna Base Shaft Head Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Carpals (a) Anterior view of left hand Radius Sesamoid bones
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pelvic (Hip) Girdle Two hip bones (each also called coxal bone or os coxae) Attach the lower limbs to the axial skeleton with strong ligaments Transmit weight of upper body to lower limbs Support pelvic organs Each hip bone consists of three fused bones: ilium, ischium, and pubis Together with the sacrum and the coccyx, these bones form the bony pelvis
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.29 Coxal bone (os coxae or hip bone) llium Sacroiliac joint Iliac fossa Pubic bone Ischium Sacrum Base of sacrum Sacral promontory Pelvic brim Acetabulum Pubic crest Pubic symphysis Iliac crest Coccyx Pubic arch Anterior inferior iliac spine Anterior superior iliac spine Pubic tubercle PLAY Animation: Rotatable pelvis
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hip Bone Three regions 1.Ilium Superior region of the coxal bone Auricular surface articulates with the sacrum (sacroiliac joint) 2.Ischium Posteroinferior part of hip bone 3.Pubis Anterior portion of hip bone Midline pubic symphysis joint
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.30a Ilium Ala Anterior gluteal line Posterior gluteal line Posterior superior iIiac spine Greater sciatic notch Posterior inferior iliac spine Ischial body Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Ischial tuberosity Ischium Ischial ramus Obturator foramen Inferior gluteal line Acetabulum Pubic body Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Pubis Inferior ramus of pubis (a) Lateral view, right hip bone
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.30b Iliac fossa Ilium Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Arcuate line Pubic tubercle Superior ramus of pubis Inferior ramus of pubis Posterior superior iliac spine Obturator foramen Body of the ilium Ischium Ischial ramus (b) Medial view, right hip bone Auricular surface Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch Greater sciatic notch Posterior inferior iliac spine Articular surface of pubis (at pubic symphysis)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Comparison of Male and Female Pelves Female pelvis Adapted for childbearing True pelvis (inferior to pelvic brim) defines birth canal Cavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow, and has greater capacity
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Comparison of Male and Female Pelves Male pelvis Tilted less forward Adapted for support of male’s heavier build and stronger muscles Cavity of true pelvis is narrow and deep
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Comparison of Male and Female Pelves CharacteristicFemaleMale Bone thicknessLighter, thinner, and smoother Heavier, thicker, and more prominent markings Pubic arch/angle80˚– 90˚50˚– 60˚ AcetabulaSmall; farther apartLarge; closer together SacrumWider, shorter; sacral curvature is accentuated Narrow, longer; sacral promontory more ventral CoccyxMore movable; straighterLess movable; curves ventrally
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.4
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.4
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.4
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Lower Limb Carries the weight of the body Subjected to exceptional forces Three segments of the lower limb Thigh: femur Leg: tibia and fibula Foot: 7 tarsal bones in the ankle, 5 metatarsal bones in the metatarsus, and 14 phalanges in the toes
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Femur Largest and strongest bone in the body Articulates proximally with the acetabulum of the hip and distally with the tibia and patella
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.31 Neck Fovea capitis Greater trochanter Inter- trochanteric crest Head Intertrochanteric line Lesser trochanter Gluteal tuberosity Linea aspera Lateral condyle Lateral epicondyle Intercondylar fossa Medial and lateral supra- condylar lines Medial condyle Medial epicondyle Adductor tubercle Anterior viewPosterior view (b) Femur (thigh bone) Lateral epicondyle Patellar surface Posterior Facet for medial condyle of femur Facet for lateral condyle of femur Surface for patellar ligament Apex Anterior (a) Patella (kneecap)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bones of the Leg Tibia Medial leg bone Receives the weight of the body from the femur and transmits it to the foot Fibula Not weight bearing; no articulation with femur Site of muscle attachment Connected to tibia by interosseous membrane Articulates with tibia via proximal and distal tibiofibular joints
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.32a Medial condyle Articular surface Tibial tuberosity Interosseous membrane Anterior border Tibia Medial malleolus Intercondylar eminence Proximal tibiofibular joint Distal tibiofibular joint Lateral malleolus Lateral condyle Fibula Head (a) Anterior view
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.32b Medial condyle Articular surface of lateral condyle Articular surface of medial condyle Articular surface Interosseous membrane Tibia Fibula Head of fibula Medial malleolus Lateral malleolus (b) Posterior view
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Foot: Tarsals Seven tarsal bones form the posterior half of the foot Talus transfers most of the weight from the tibia to the calcaneus Other tarsal bones: cuboid, navicular, and the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Foot: Metatarsals and Phalanges Metatarsals: Five metatarsal bones (#1 to #5) Enlarged head of metatarsal 1 forms the “ball of the foot” Phalanges The 14 bones of the toes Each digit (except the hallux) has three phalanges Hallux has no middle phalanx
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.33a Medial cuneiform Phalanges Metatarsals Tarsals Navicular Intermediate cuneiform Talus Calcaneus (a) Superior view Cuboid Lateral cuneiform Proximal Middle Distal Trochlea of talus
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.33b Facet for medial malleolus Calcaneal tuberosity (b) Medial view Intermediate cuneiform Sustentac- ulum tali (talar shelf) Talus Navicular First metatarsal Medial cuneiform Calcaneus PLAY Animation: Rotatable bones of the foot
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Arches of the Foot Arches are maintained by interlocking foot bones, ligaments, and tendons Arches allow the foot to bear weight Three arches Lateral longitudinal Medial longitudinal Transverse
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.34a Medial longitudinal arch Transverse arch Lateral longitudinal arch (a) Lateral aspect of right foot
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects: Fetal Skull Infant skull has more bones than the adult skull Skull bones such as the mandible and frontal bones are unfused At birth, skull bones are connected by fontanelles Fontanelles Unossified remnants of fibrous membranes between fetal skull bones Four fontanelles Anterior, posterior, mastoid, and sphenoid
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.35 Frontal bone Ossification center Occipital bone (a) Superior view Posterior fontanelle Parietal bone Anterior fontanelle Frontal suture (b) Lateral view Posterior fontanelle Mastoid fontanelle Parietal bone Ossification center Occipital bone Temporal bone (squamous portion) Frontal bone Sphenoidal fontanelle
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects: Growth Rates At birth, the cranium is huge relative to the face At 9 months of age, cranium is ½ adult size Mandible and maxilla are foreshortened but lengthen with age The arms and legs grow at a faster rate than the head and trunk, leading to adult proportions
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects: Spinal Curvature Thoracic and sacral curvatures are obvious at birth These primary curvatures give the spine a C shape Convex posteriorly
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.37
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects: Spinal Curvature Secondary curvatures Cervical and lumbar—convex anteriorly Appear as child develops (e.g., lifts head, learns to walk)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects: Old Age Intervertebral discs become thin, less hydrated, and less elastic Risk of disc herniation increases Loss of stature by several centimeters is common by age 55 Costal cartilages ossify, causing the thorax to become rigid All bones lose mass
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