Presentation on theme: "OBJECTIVES: Identify the elements of the Treaty of Versailles. Explain the reasons why it failed. 19.4 WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE."— Presentation transcript:
OBJECTIVES: Identify the elements of the Treaty of Versailles. Explain the reasons why it failed. 19.4 WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE
PROBLEMS WITH THE PEACE… CONTEXT: Germany had not been militarily defeated. Britain, Italy and France want Germany “humbled” so she will never invade again. Wilson wants to create a “peace without victors” and avoid future conflicts. PROBLEM: Both views seek peace, but have opposite means to that end.
FROM LEFT TO RIGHT… Vittorio OrlandoVittorio Orlando - Italian premier David Lloyd GeorgeDavid Lloyd George - British prime minister Georges ClemenceauGeorges Clemenceau - French prime minister Woodrow WilsonWoodrow Wilson - American president
Wilson’s Fourteen Points I. NO SECRET TREATIES II. FREEDOM OF THE SEAS III. FREE TRADE AMONG NATIONS IV. DEMILITARIZATION V. FAIR AND EQUITABLE TREATMENT OF COLONIZED PEOPLES XIV. LEAGUE OF NATIONS How many of the points were achieved?
Wilson’s Fourteen Points I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view. NO SECRET TREATIES II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants. FREEDOM OF THE SEAS III. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance. FREE TRADE AMONG NATIONS IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety. DEMILITARIZATION V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined. FAIR AND EQUITABLE TREATMENT OF COLONIZED PEOPLES
Wilson’s Fourteen Points VIII-XIII. (These points dealt with boundary changes) XIV. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS.
FOURTEEN POINTS REJECTED Allies reject Wilson’s plan Central Powers not included in peace negotiations Russia and smaller allies excluded – only Britain, France, Italy and USA German, Ottoman, and Austrian empire in part “liberated” and divided among France and Britain Germany’s military dismantled Germany forced to accept war guilt clause Germany must $33 billion in reparations WHAT PROBLEMS DO YOU FORESEE?
HOW MANY OF THE FOUR LONG-TERM CAUSES OF WWI DID THE TREATY FIX? HINT: Look back in your notes to the 4 major causes?
PUNISHING GERMANY “It stripped Germany of just over 13 per cent of its territory, much of which, in the shape of Alsace and Lorraine, was returned to France. It also reduced Germany's economic productivity by about 13 per cent and its population by ten per cent. Germany lost all of its colonies and large merchant vessels, 75 per cent of its iron ore deposits and 26 per cent of its coal and potash.” SOURCE: British Broadcasting Corp. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/versailles_03.shtml
WEAKNESSES OF THE TREATY 1. It humiliated Germany, and it meant to. 2. Russia was not included. It lost more land than Germany did, leaving it wanting more. 3. Allies stripped Germany of its colonies, but kept and expanded their own.
WILSON DISILLUSIONED Americans see the Treaty as too harsh & a sell-out Many of the new boundaries created new problems, especially in Middle-East League of Nations worried isolationists – it looked like an entangling alliance!!!
WILSON DISILLUSIONED Opposition to Treaty lead by Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge and Republican Party. Wilson refuses to compromise and appeals directly to the voters Wilson collapses with a stroke. OUTCOME: 1. Senate rejects the Treaty and US does not join the League of Nations. 2. Germans feel betrayed and regret stopping the war. 3. Germany’s economy is ruined. 4. Hitler comes to power, capitalizing on anger, bitterness, and fear for the future.
Henry Cabot Lodge The world's best hope, but if you fetter her in the interest through quarrels of other nations, if you tangle her in the intrigues of Europe, you will destroy her powerful good, and endanger her very existence. Leave her to march freely through the centuries to come, as in the years that have gone. Strong, generous, and confident, she has nobly served mankind. Beware how you trifle with your marvelous inheritance -- this great land of ordered liberty. For if we stumble and fall, freedom and civilization everywhere will go down in ruin. http://memory.loc.gov/pnp/ppmsc/03600/03676r.jpg
What were the outcomes of the Versailles Treaty? Was the treaty just? Was Wilson being unrealistic?
TREATY OF VERSAILLES WEAKNESSES REASONS FOR OPPOSITION IN THE US PROVISIONS
TERMS Fourteen Points League of Nations Treaty of Versailles Reparations War-guilt clause Henry Cabot Lodge Objectives: Identify the elements of the Treaty of Versailles. Explain the reasons why it failed.