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19.4 WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE OBJECTIVES: Identify the elements of the Treaty of Versailles. Explain the reasons why it failed.

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Presentation on theme: "19.4 WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE OBJECTIVES: Identify the elements of the Treaty of Versailles. Explain the reasons why it failed."— Presentation transcript:

1 19.4 WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE OBJECTIVES: Identify the elements of the Treaty of Versailles. Explain the reasons why it failed.

2 TREATY OF VERSAILLES WEAKNESSES REASONS FOR OPPOSITION IN THE US PROVISIONS

3 QUIZ 1.Whose plan for peace was called the 14 Points? 2.The requirement to pay for war damages is called _________. 3.Which Republican senator led the fight to reject the Treaty of Versailles? 4.Germany was forced to sign the ____ guilt clause. 5.Which ally was not party to the Treaty of Versailles negotiations?

4 QUIZ 1.Wilson’s Plan for peace was called the Fourteen________. 2.The requirement to pay for war damages is called _________. 3.Woodrow Wilson suffered a _______ while trying to convince Americans to support the League of Nations. 4.Germany was forced to sign the war- _______ clause. 5.The treaty to end WWI was called the Treaty of _____________.

5 PROBLEMS WITH THE PEACE… CONTEXT: Germany had not been militarily defeated. Britain, Italy and France want Germany “humbled” so she will never invade again. Wilson wants to create a “peace without victors” and avoid future conflicts. PROBLEM: Both views seek peace, but have opposite means to that end.

6 FROM LEFT TO RIGHT… Vittorio OrlandoVittorio Orlando - Italian premier David Lloyd GeorgeDavid Lloyd George - British prime minister Georges ClemenceauGeorges Clemenceau - French prime minister Woodrow WilsonWoodrow Wilson - American president

7 Wilson’s Fourteen Points I.NO SECRET TREATIES II.FREEDOM OF THE SEAS III. FREE TRADE AMONG NATIONS IV. DEMILITARIZATION V. FAIR AND EQUITABLE TREATMENT OF COLONIZED PEOPLES XIV. LEAGUE OF NATIONS How many of the points were achieved?

8 Wilson’s Fourteen Points I.Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view. NO SECRET TREATIES II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants. FREEDOM OF THE SEAS III.The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance. FREE TRADE AMONG NATIONS IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety. DEMILITARIZATION V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined. FAIR AND EQUITABLE TREATMENT OF COLONIZED PEOPLES

9 Wilson’s Fourteen Points VIII-XIII. (These points dealt with boundary changes) XIV. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS.

10 FOURTEEN POINTS REJECTED Allies reject Wilson’s plan Central Powers not included in peace negotiations Russia and smaller allies excluded – only Britain, France, Italy and USA German, Ottoman, and Austrian empire in part “liberated” and divided among France and Britain Germany’s military dismantled Germany forced to accept war guilt clause Germany must $33 billion in reparations WHAT PROBLEMS DO YOU FORESEE?

11 HOW MANY OF THE FOUR LONG-TERM CAUSES OF WWI DID THE TREATY FIX?

12 PUNISHING GERMANY “It stripped Germany of just over 13 per cent of its territory, much of which, in the shape of Alsace and Lorraine, was returned to France. It also reduced Germany's economic productivity by about 13 per cent and its population by ten per cent. Germany lost all of its colonies and large merchant vessels, 75 per cent of its iron ore deposits and 26 per cent of its coal and potash.” SOURCE: British Broadcasting Corp.

13 Map: Europe Transformed by War and Peace Europe Transformed by War and Peace After President Wilson and the other conferees at the Paris Peace Conference negotiated the Treaty of Versailles, empires were broken up. In eastern Europe, in particular, new nations emerged. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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16 Map: Postwar Boundary Changes in Europe and the Middle East Postwar Boundary Changes in Europe and the Middle East This map shows the boundary changes in Europe and the Middle East that resulted from the defeat of the four large, multiethnic empires--Austria-Hungary, Russia, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

17 TREATY OF VERSAILLES AND REPARATIONS Fourteen Points Reduce military to the 'lowest point consistent with domestic safety'. 'Impartial adjustment of all colonial claims Leave Russian territory Leave Belgium Leave France and return Alsace and Lorraine Adapted from dwarone/hq/outcomes3_01.shtml Treaty of Versailles Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men. They were forbidden to have tanks or an air force. The Rhineland - was made into a demilitarized zone. Allied troops were stationed there for fifteen years. Britain and its Dominions split up the main African colonies. Germany was forced to renounce claims in Asia. Some of the land that Germany had taken in Brest-Litovsk was made into new states: Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. Belgium was also given some German territory. Alsace-Lorraine was given to France. France also received the coal mines Germany's Saar Basin, though the area was to be governed by the League of Nations. However, Denmark and Czechoslovakia received German territory.

18 TREATY OF VERSAILLES AND REPARATIONS Fourteen Points Italy gets back the land that Austria-Hungary had taken. 'An independent Poland to be established, with free and secure access to the Sea‘ 'Freedom of the Seas.‘ Adapted from /worldwarone/hq/outcomes3_ 01.shtml Treaty of Versailles Italy received territory that was promised by the Allies in the secret Treaty of London. No more. used to create Poland. Land from East Prussia gave Poland access to the Sea. Upper Silesia, a strong industrial centre between Poland and Germany, was given temporary independence. (Britain protested this)

19 TREATY OF VERSAILLES WEAKNESSES REASONS FOR OPPOSITION IN THE US PROVISIONS

20 WEAKNESSES OF THE TREATY 1.It humiliated Germany, and it meant to. 2.Russia was not included. It lost more land than Germany did, leaving it wanting more. 3.Allies stripped Germany of its colonies, but kept and expanded their own.

21 WILSON DISILLUSIONED Americans see the Treaty as too harsh & a sell-out Many of the new boundaries created new problems, especially in Middle-East League of Nations worried isolationists – it looked like an entangling alliance!!!

22 WILSON DISILLUSIONED Opposition to Treaty lead by Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge and Republican Party. Wilson refuses to compromise and appeals directly to the voters Wilson collapses with a stroke. OUTCOME: 1. Senate rejects the Treaty and US does not join the League of Nations. 2.Germans feel betrayed and regret stopping the war. 3.Germany’s economy is ruined. 4.Hitler comes to power, capitalizing on anger, bitterness, and fear for the future.

23 Henry Cabot Lodge The world's best hope, but if you fetter her in the interest through quarrels of other nations, if you tangle her in the intrigues of Europe, you will destroy her powerful good, and endanger her very existence. Leave her to march freely through the centuries to come, as in the years that have gone. Strong, generous, and confident, she has nobly served mankind. Beware how you trifle with your marvelous inheritance -- this great land of ordered liberty. For if we stumble and fall, freedom and civilization everywhere will go down in ruin.

24 Wilson after his stroke, 1919 In October 1919 President Woodrow Wilson (1856–1924) receives assistance after his massive stroke, which made it difficult for him to maintain his train of thought and manage government affairs. Historians continue to debate the influence of Wilson's poor health on the president's losing battle for U.S. membership in the League of Nations. (Library of Congress) Wilson after his stroke, 1919 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

25 What were the outcomes of the Versailles Treaty? Was the treaty just? Was Wilson being unrealistic?

26 TREATY OF VERSAILLES WEAKNESSES REASONS FOR OPPOSITION IN THE US PROVISIONS

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