Presentation on theme: "1. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at. 2. Freedom of navigation on the seas. 3. Removal of economic barriers and equality of trade conditions."— Presentation transcript:
1. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at. 2. Freedom of navigation on the seas. 3. Removal of economic barriers and equality of trade conditions. 4. Guaranteed reduction in armaments. (You do not need to write each out, write sparingly!)
Wilson’s Fourteen Points 5-13 Self Determination of Peoples 5. Impartial adjustment of colonial claims. 6. Evacuation of occupied Russian territories and fair treatment of Russia. 7. Evacuation and restoration of Belgium. 8. Evacuation and restoration of all French territory. 9. Readjustment of Italy's border. 10. Guarantee autonomous development for Austria- Hungary. 11. Restoration of territories of Rumania, Serbia and Montenegro 12. Assure sovereignty to Turkish portions of Ottoman Empire and assure autonomy to other nationalities under Turkish rule. Free passage through Straits of Dardanelles. 13. Establish an independent Poland. (Do not write each out)
14 th Point-The Most Important! Formation of an association of nations to guarantee political independence and territorial integrity of all nations. League of Nations The Palaise Wilson, headquarters of the League of Nations Secretariat from 1920-1936 in Geneva
The Treaty of Versailles World War I became a crusade in the U.S. It was considered to be the “War to end all wars” and “the war to make the world safe for democracy.” Wilson proposed Fourteen Points as the model for peace.
The Big Four Dominated the Treaty of Versailles Woodrow Wilson of the U.S. David Lloyd George of Great Britain. Clemenceau of France. Orlando of Italy.
The other Big Four members… Did not go along with the Fourteen Points even though they pretended. It was against their national interest! Germany and Russia were not represented at the Treaty of Versailles which made them bitter.
The Treaty of Versailles (Peace of Paris, 1919) Germany was to accept the blame for the war and pay reparations ($33 billion), & could have no navy, air force, and just a small army. Land was taken away from Germany, and all of her colonies were taken away. New countries were created in Europe from territories that were taken away from Russia, Germany, and Austria-Hungary. NEW: Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, & Baltic States.
The Mandate System Was set up to take care of former Turkish and German colonies: The Middle Eastern Turkish lands were given to Great Britain and France (this included present day Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Israel). Great Britain received Germany’s African colonies. Japan and the U.S. received many of the German islands in the Pacific. The League of Nations is created. President Wilson proposed the League of Nations
European colonization in the Middle East (ind. date incl.) Which European nations dominated the area?
Immediate Results of the Treaty of Versailles: Wilson had to give up almost all of his Fourteen Points to get the League of Nations as a part of the treaty. Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union were extremely upset with the Treaty of Versailles.
The U.S. Fails to Ratify the Treaty of Versailles Opposition to the Treaty: Americans were not as idealistic as they had been during World War I, and they felt duped by the Europeans. Republican Senators were angry because they were not invited to the peace talks, yet the Republicans won the congressional elections of 1918!
The U.S. Fails to Ratify the Treaty of Versailles German, Italian, and Russian Americans felt that the treaty was unfair to their home lands. Isolationists felt that the League of Nations would get the U.S. involved in more wars. What is the message of the cartoon?
The U.S. Fails to Ratify the Treaty of Versailles Wilson was moralistic, stubborn, and refused to compromise. Wilson would not compromise on Article X which would obligate U.S. to get involved with countries that used war. Wilson decided to appeal to the people on a train campaign. Wilson became seriously ill during his trip and this weakened his influence.
The U.S. Fails to Ratify Versailles Treaty Wilson was so ill that he only communicated through his wife. His refusal to compromise cost him votes. The Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, and it became a campaign issue during the Election of 1920. The U.S. finally made separate treaties with the Central Powers countries. Funeral procession of President Wilson