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23.4 Questions Before we look at the treaty.. The Last Years of the War 2 reasons 1917 was bad for the allies? 2 reasons 1917 was bad for the allies?

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Presentation on theme: "23.4 Questions Before we look at the treaty.. The Last Years of the War 2 reasons 1917 was bad for the allies? 2 reasons 1917 was bad for the allies?"— Presentation transcript:

1 23.4 Questions Before we look at the treaty.

2 The Last Years of the War 2 reasons 1917 was bad for the allies? 2 reasons 1917 was bad for the allies? 1. Bad defeats on the Western front 1. Bad defeats on the Western front 2. Russian Revolution leads to Russian withdrawal from the war. 2. Russian Revolution leads to Russian withdrawal from the war. Who entered the war in 1917? Who entered the war in 1917? - The United States - The United States

3 The Last Years of the War Why was the 2 nd Battle of the Marne so decisive? Why was the 2 nd Battle of the Marne so decisive? - Germany lost its final big offensive. - Germany lost its final big offensive. - U.S. troops create steady stream of new troops heading to Germany - U.S. troops create steady stream of new troops heading to Germany

4 The Last Years of the War If the Kaiser fled the country on Nov. 9, 1918, who surrendered for Germany? If the Kaiser fled the country on Nov. 9, 1918, who surrendered for Germany? - Frederich Ebert (Social Democrat) formed a new government and surrendered. - Frederich Ebert (Social Democrat) formed a new government and surrendered. Who challenged the new government under the German Social Democrats? Who challenged the new government under the German Social Democrats? - German Communist Party - German Communist Party - GSD and army crush communists - GSD and army crush communists

5 How the Map Changes Let’s take a look

6 Europe before WW I

7 Europe in 1922

8 League of Nations Mandates (Middle East)

9 The Failure of Versailles What led to the failure of Woodrow Wilson’s vision?

10 The 14 Points Delivered to Congress on January 8th, Delivered to Congress on January 8th, This was Woodrow Wilson’s vision for a new world order. This was Woodrow Wilson’s vision for a new world order.

11 To End War (Points 1 - 5) 1. No secret treaties 2. Freedom of the seas 3. Open markets (no tariffs) 4. Arms reduction (only as needed for protection) 5. Colonial policies good for both colonizer and colony

12 Points Self-Determination - Wilson believed national groups on borders should decide which country they would like to join. Self-Determination - Wilson believed national groups on borders should decide which country they would like to join.

13 The 14th Point - The League of Nations The League of Nations would govern world affairs. The League of Nations would govern world affairs. If a nation was attacked unfairly all nations should come to the aid of the attacked. If a nation was attacked unfairly all nations should come to the aid of the attacked. Which person would exploit the weakness of the League of Nations? Which person would exploit the weakness of the League of Nations?

14 Adolf Hitler

15 The Big Four at Versailles

16 Steven Felzenberg “In October 1918, the German government informed Wilson on its willingness to accept an armistice based on the 14 points. In granting the armistice and pressing the Allied powers to do the same, the American Prime Minister allowed Germany to believe that he had the power to commit not only the United States but also the Allies to the just peace he had promised. On this, he would fail to deliver.”

17 What were some of the big mistakes at Versailles German War Guilt Clause German War Guilt Clause Reparations - Germany was forced to pay $56 billion dollars and complete responsibility for the war. Reparations - Germany was forced to pay $56 billion dollars and complete responsibility for the war. German Sudetenland given to Czechoslovakia. German Sudetenland given to Czechoslovakia. Russian exclusion and loss of territory Russian exclusion and loss of territory Failure in Asia Failure in Asia 1) Japan snubbed with territory 1) Japan snubbed with territory Wilson’s failure to consider the Senate’s role in accepting the Treaty. Wilson’s failure to consider the Senate’s role in accepting the Treaty.

18 Tools Wilson could have used to press Allies for agreement U.S. entrance in the war contingent on acceptance of the 14 points U.S. entrance in the war contingent on acceptance of the 14 points Europe’s food supply heavily dependent on the U.S. Europe’s food supply heavily dependent on the U.S. The loans granted to the Allies by the U.S. The loans granted to the Allies by the U.S. Use his popularity in Europe through the press - Allowed press proceedings of Versailles negotiations to be closed to the press. Use his popularity in Europe through the press - Allowed press proceedings of Versailles negotiations to be closed to the press.

19 The Lodge Reservations “The United States is the world's best hope, but if you fetter her in the interests and quarrels of other nations, if you tangle her in the intrigues of Europe, you will destroy her powerful good, and endanger her very existence. Leave her to march freely through the centuries to come, as in the years that have gone. Strong, generous, and confident, she has nobly served mankind. Beware how you trifle with your marvelous inheritance; this great land of ordered liberty. For if we stumble and fall, freedom and civilization everywhere will go down in ruin.”

20 Henry Cabot Lodge (Rep) In essence, Lodge did not want to have the United States bound to enter another world conflict. In essence, Lodge did not want to have the United States bound to enter another world conflict. Some historians feel if Wilson compromised with Lodge and the moderates the Treaty may have been ratified by the Senate. Some historians feel if Wilson compromised with Lodge and the moderates the Treaty may have been ratified by the Senate.

21 Wilson’s response to Lodge The treaty placed a “moral obligation” on its signatories to give up some of their sovereignty. The treaty placed a “moral obligation” on its signatories to give up some of their sovereignty. If Wilson allows Senate to add “reservations” than other countries will do the same. If Wilson allows Senate to add “reservations” than other countries will do the same. When Democrats push him to compromise Wilson exclaims, “Let Lodge compromise!” When Democrats push him to compromise Wilson exclaims, “Let Lodge compromise!”

22 The Treaty is Rejected in the United States Senate Wilson refused to accept the treaty with the Lodge Reservations. Wilson refused to accept the treaty with the Lodge Reservations. The Democrats have enough votes (minority by 2 votes) in the Senate to reject the Lodge Reservations The Democrats have enough votes (minority by 2 votes) in the Senate to reject the Lodge Reservations The Democrats do not have enough support to get the 2/3 vote needed to ratify the treaty. The Democrats do not have enough support to get the 2/3 vote needed to ratify the treaty. The United States signs a separate peace treaty with Germany in The United States signs a separate peace treaty with Germany in 1921.

23 Wilson’s Last Public Address “ I have seen fools resist providence before and I have seen their destruction as will come upon these again-utter destruction and contempt. That we shall prevail is as sure as God reigns.”

24 Although Failed Wilson achieved.. The conept of “human rights” is pushed in the dialogue of U.S. foreign policy. The conept of “human rights” is pushed in the dialogue of U.S. foreign policy. The term “Wilsonian” is applied to a foreign policy based on negotiation. The term “Wilsonian” is applied to a foreign policy based on negotiation. The idea of liberty was picked up and extended to other parts of the world. (Not just an American ideal.) The idea of liberty was picked up and extended to other parts of the world. (Not just an American ideal.)

25 Rankings? Where does Wilson rank on the president’s list? Where does Wilson rank on the president’s list?


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