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Unit 2 Exploration and Colonization Exploration and Colonization What happens when different cultures first meet?

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 2 Exploration and Colonization Exploration and Colonization What happens when different cultures first meet?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 2 Exploration and Colonization Exploration and Colonization What happens when different cultures first meet?

2 Lessons Lesson 1 The World Expands Lesson 2 Spaniards Reach the Americas Lesson 3 Spanish Exploration & Conquest Lesson 4 Spain’s Overseas Empire Lesson 5 Searching for the Northwest Passage

3 The World Expands PREVIEW Vocabulary profit merchant barter navigation Lesson 1 How did events in Europe affect exploration?

4 The World Expands Who were the first Europeans to reach North America and why did they abandon the colony? The Middle Ages MC 1 The Vikings (Norse) were the first Europeans to arrive. They may have left because of diseases and battles with native people.

5 The World Expands Why was the Silk Road important for traders from A.D. 100 until the 1300s? SA The Silk Road was the only trade route from Europe to Asia from A. D. 100 until the 1300s. After reaching Asia, what items had Marco Polo and his family never seen in Europe? MC 2 Paper money and gunpowder were items never seen by Marco Polo and his family before they reached Asia. FILL A merchant is a person who makes their living buying and selling goods. FILL Merchants want to make a profit which is the money that remains after the costs of running a business.

6 The World Expands FILL To barter is to exchange goods for other goods rather than money. MC 3 In African kingdoms salt was bartered for gold because it was just as valuable.

7 The World Expands What advances in the science of navigation and technology helped further exploration? FILL Navigation is finding direction and following routes at sea. FILL The development of a new ship, the caravel, with both square and triangle- shaped sails, allowed the ship to change direction and catch the wind more easily. Who did Prince Henry start a school for? MC 4 Prince Henry started a school for sailors so they could sail along the western coast of Africa to reach Asia.

8 Spaniards Reach the Americas PREVIEW Vocabulary expedition colony Columbian Exchange Lesson 2 How did Spanish explorers change the Americas?

9 Spaniards Reach the Americas Christopher Columbus went on an expedition which is a journey with a special purpose. He wanted to get to the Indies faster. No one would pay for his trip going in the “wrong” direction (west) until the King and Queen of Spain offered. MC 5 On his expedition, Columbus kept two logs: one with the exact distances the ships sailed and one with shorter distances in order to mislead other explorers. Columbus thought he landed in the Indies, but he actually landed in the Bahamas (San Salvador). He did NOT get where he was going. The Native Americans he met there Columbus called the Taíno “Indios” because he believed he had reached the Indies. On Columbus’s future journeys he wanted to set up a colony for Spain. A colony is a settlement far from the county that rules it.

10 Spaniards Reach the Americas The Columbian Exchange was the movement of animals, plants, and disease across the Atlantic Ocean. Unfortunately, the Europeans also brought germs and diseases. This was killing millions of Native Americans by the 1600s.

11 Spaniards Reach the Americas Columbus believed he landed in the Indies; however, Amerigo Vespucci was the first to believe that America was a new land. As a result, America was named for him by a German geographer in 1507 when he labeled the new land.

12 Spanish Exploration and Conquest PREVIEW Vocabulary empire conquistador Lesson 3 How did the arrival of Spanish explorers change Native American empires?

13 Spanish Exploration and Conquest MC 10 Spain’s desire for wealth (gold) was the main reason they wanted to conquer the Aztec and Inca Empires. Hernan Cortes landed in Mexico with over 500 conquistadors to take over the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan. Montezuma, welcomed the Spanish, but Cortes took him prisoner and demanded gold in return for Montezuma’s freedom. After the Aztecs refused, violence broke out. The Spaniards were driven away, Montezuma was killed, and the Spaniards left behind a deadly weapon: smallpox. Tenochtitlan = Mexico City MC 9 Montezuma was the leader of the Aztec empire.

14 Spanish Exploration and Conquest In South America lived the Inca. They were the wealthiest empire in the world at the time. The Inca empire was 2,500 miles long that was linked together by a system of paved roads or “highways.” Messengers were able to carry important information by RUNNING 50 miles a day! Gold = “sweat of the sun” Silver = “tears of the moon”

15 Spanish Exploration and Conquest SA The Inca began dying from diseases that spread quickly throughout the empire before Pizarro arrived. When Francisco Pizarro arrived with only 180 men, the Inca ruler of the North, Atahualpa, was not concerned. He had a bigger problem with Huascar, the southern ruler of the Inca empire. 1 In a sneak attack, Pizarro and his men surrounded Cajamarca, killed thousands of Inca, and captured Atahualpa. 2 After Atahualpa filled a room with gold and silver, the Spaniards killed him, and sent melted gold and silver back to Spain. Thus, Spain now controlled one of the largest empires in the world.

16 Spain’s Overseas Empire PREVIEW Vocabulary frontier missionary enslave mestizo Lesson 4 How did Spain’s growing empire impact life in North America?

17 Spain’s Overseas Empire Juan Ponce de LeonHernando de Soto Searched in Florida Never found what they were looking for claimed land for Spain Searching for the Fountain of Youth Searching for gold both explorers SA

18 Spain’s Overseas Empire MC 11 Coronado and his men were the first Europeans to see the Grand Canyon. Spain expanded its empire as they were entering a new frontier. FILL A frontier is the far edge of a settled area.

19 Spain’s Overseas Empire MC 13 & FILL Bartolome de Las Casas was a missionary, (a person who tries to persuade people to accept new religious beliefs) who wanted to help Native Americans and treat them equally. Spain controlled two large territories in the Americas, and sent rulers overseas to take care of their land. MC 12 Spanish rulers gave encomiendas, large areas of land, to colonists who were loyal to them. MC 15 More workers were needed to work on the encomiendas. So Spanish explorers brought the first enslaved Africans to Mexico. FILL To enslave people is to force them to work against their will.

20 Spain’s Overseas Empire society Viceroy – ruler in New Spain MC 14 Peninsulares – Spaniards from Spain Criollos – people born in New Spain but had “old” Spain parents FILL Mestizos – people who were both Spanish and Native American Native Americans and Enslaved Africans – people forced to work without wages

21 Searching for the Northwest Passage PREVIEW Vocabulary Northwest Passage merchant company Lesson 5 How did the search for the Northwest Passage affect people?

22 Searching for the Northwest Passage What was the importance of the Northwest Passage? MC 16 It was believed to be a shortcut to Asia that would allow Europeans to make the trip less costly and much faster.

23 Searching for the Northwest Passage MC 19 Did anyone ever find the Northwest passage? No… because it doesn’t exist! explorerhired bydiscovery SA John CabotKing of EnglandNewfoundland SA Giovanni de Verrazano FranceHudson River SA Henry HudsonDutch East India Company Hudson, Chesapeake, and Delaware Bays

24 Review Name the European explorer associated with each area. Mexico West coast of South America Florida Southeastern U.S. Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona Southwestern U.S.; first European to see the Grand Canyon Newfoundland Hudson River Hudson, Chesapeake, and Delaware Bays St. Lawrence River Lakes Huron, Ontario, Erie and Superior Lake Michigan Hernan Cortés John Cabot Jacques Cartier Francisco Pizarro Juan Ponce de León Hernando de Soto Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Giovanni da Verrazano Henry Hudson Étienne Brûlé Jean Nicolet

25 Maps Click on a map to enlarge the view.

26 Graphic Organizer Cause and Effect Click on the graphic organizer to enlarge the view and enter content.

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