2 Age of ExplorationChristopher Columbus was not the first European to land in America.The first Europeans in America were the Vikings.An early Viking settlement was found in Newfoundland, Canada, that dates back to the year 1001.Why, then, do we celebrate Columbus Day?
3 Columbus’ VoyageColumbus believed he could reach Asia by sailing west.Columbus began sailing for Portugal, but the Portuguese king was not interested in Columbus’ big plan.Columbus then asked the king and queen of Spain to finance his plan. They agreed to do so.
4 Columbus cont. In August 1492, Columbus set sail west for Asia. Columbus predicted the trip to Asia would only take 21 days.After nearly two months, they finally spotted land.He claimed the land for Spain, but was met on the beach by the Natives.He traveled from island to island in the Caribbean: Cuba, Hispaniola.
6 Spain Backs More Voyages After Columbus returned to Spain, he claimed that there was vast amounts of gold in what he called the West Indies.Spain sent him back with more ships and made him governor of everything he claimed for Spain.Spain wanted to colonize the area, take its gold, and spread Christianity.Columbus enslaved the Natives and made them dig for gold.Columbus died still believing that he made it to Asia.
7 Other Explorers Amerigo Vespucci Ferdinand Magellan He sailed for Italy.He made it to the Americas and believed that they were not Asia but a whole new world.A German mapmaker then labeled the area “the land of Amerigo.”Ferdinand MagellanHe wanted to find a water route to Asia.He sailed down the South American coast looking for a strait, a narrow passage connecting two bodies of water.He made it around the horn of South America which is now called the Strait of Magellan.His men eventually made it back to Spain. They were the first people to circumnavigate the world.
9 The Columbian Exchange A transfer of people, good, and ideas between the Western and Eastern hemispheres.The Europeans brought many plants and animals like corn, turkeys, potatoes, cocoa back to Europe.They also brought over cows, pigs, horses, and other animals to the Americas.The Europeans also unknowingly brought over diseases like smallpox, chickenpox, and measles.
10 Spain’s Empire in the Americas: Spanish Conquistadors Cortes:Cortes sailed from Cuba to Mexico with 500 soldiers.The Natives met him with gifts and gold.He marched his me to the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.The Aztec leader, Montezuma, offered him gold if he would leave.Cortes took Montezuma hostage and claimed Mexico for Spain.The Aztecs pushed out the Spaniards. However, one year later the Spaniards came back and defeated the Aztecs.
11 Spanish Conquistadors cont. Pizarro:Pizarro landed on the coast of Peru.He took his 170 soldiers in search for the Inca gold.He took the Inca leader hostage.The Inca people paid the ransom, but Pizarro executed their leader anyways.Why were the Spaniards victorious?
12 Other Spanish Explorers Ponce de Leon:Traveled from Puerto Rico and landed a land he called La Florida.He was the first Spaniard to set foot on what would become the United states.Coronado:Headed north from Mexico City in search of a city of gold.He traveled around some of the western United states like New Mexico and Arizona.
13 Colonizing the Americas Reasons for coming to America:LandGoldReligionThe Spanish built plantations and set up provincial governments.Many Natives were made slaves to work on the plantations and in the gold and silver mines.Some people began to protest the treatment of the Natives.This lead to some reforms lead by the church.
14 Colonizing the Americas cont. The Spanish set up missions in order to convert the Natives to Christianity.Many US cities got their starts as Spanish missions such as San Diego, San Francisco, and San Antonio.The Spanish began to run out Natives for slave labor and looked to the other side of the Atlantic to fill that void.The Spanish colonies had a strict class based society.Those who were born in Spain, peninsulares, were at the top.Those born to in the Americas to Spanish parents were called Creoles.Those who Spanish and Indian blood were called Mestizos.Those with Spanish and African blood were Mulattos.