Presentation on theme: "Where have we seen cross-cultural interaction before in world history? Buddhist missionaries traveled from India to eastern Asia to spread their religion."— Presentation transcript:
Where have we seen cross-cultural interaction before in world history? Buddhist missionaries traveled from India to eastern Asia to spread their religion. Muslims expanded their empire to include southern Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa. The Mongols took over a huge area of land in Asia to create one of the biggest empires of all time. Vikings conquered parts of northern and eastern Europe. The expansion of western Europe beginning in 1450 is going to create a world where cross-cultural interaction is common; goods, ideas, and diseases are traded rapidly from continent to continent; the conquest of new lands and expansion of empires becomes frequent.
How were the Aztecs conquered? The Aztec Empire covered much of central Mexico and was ruled by the Aztec king in the capital city of Tenochtitlán. Hernán Cortés arrived from Spain in 1519 with 500 soldiers and 16 horses, along with guns. He was met by King Montezuma. The Spanish took Montezuma hostage and tried to take over the city. In 1520, the Spanish were defeated and pushed out. When the Spanish left, the Aztecs began to get sick from smallpox, which the Spanish had a natural immunity to. Cortés returned with more Spanish soldiers and allies from other parts of Mexico, defeated the Aztecs, destroyed their empire, and began building a Spanish colony.
How were the Incas conquered? The Inca Empire was centered in Peru and controlled much of South America. Francisco Pizarro arrived on the Pacific coast of South America from Spain in 1530 with 180 men. The Spanish brought steel weapons, guns, horses—the Inca had none of these. The Inca were also susceptible to smallpox, like the Aztec. The Inca emperor died of smallpox. The Spanish were then easily able to take over the Inca Empire by force and set up a new colony at Lima.
What is the Columbian Exchange? The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and people between the western & eastern hemispheres is called the Columbian Exchange, after Christopher Columbus. This exchange would drastically change the “Old World” and the “New World”. Most of Mexico, Central & South America were under Spanish control and Brazil under Portuguese control by 1550. Queen Isabella declared all Native Americans as subjects of her empire and gave the Spanish colonists encomienda — landownership and the right to use Native Americans as laborers.
What is the Columbian Exchange? Forced labor, new diseases, and lack of food killed many Native Americans. Catholic monks also journeyed to the New World and converted Native Americans. They also opened schools, churches, hospitals, etc—emulating European society. Spanish and Native Americans intermarried and some aspects of Incan and Aztec cultures were able to survive. The colonists set up huge plantations and were able to send lots of food and natural resources (including gold) back to Europe.
How did the European countries compete for territory in the New World? The English, Dutch and Portuguese were competing in India by the end of the 16 th century. The Dutch began to settle in North America—they had territories from the east coast of Canada down to New York (which was then called New Amsterdam). The French colonized from Canada down to Louisiana. Quebec was founded in 1608 as a trading center. The English were able to edge the Dutch out of North America. Most of the east coast was under English control by the end of the 17 th century. They set up sugar plantations in the South and in the Caribbean.