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Respiratory System Chapter 11. Objectives  Identify the organs of the respiratory system  Locate the structures of the respiratory system  Identify.

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Presentation on theme: "Respiratory System Chapter 11. Objectives  Identify the organs of the respiratory system  Locate the structures of the respiratory system  Identify."— Presentation transcript:

1 Respiratory System Chapter 11

2 Objectives  Identify the organs of the respiratory system  Locate the structures of the respiratory system  Identify the functions of the respiratory system  Review some disorders of the respiratory system  Review some laboratory test and procedures

3 Functions of the Respiratory System  Breathing process  Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide  Enable speech production

4 How it works:  Consist of a series of tubes that transport air in an out of the lungs.  Function is to supply oxygen to the body cells and to transport carbon dioxide which is produced by the body cells into the atmosphere  There are two forms of respiration exchange

5 1: External respiration  Oxygen is inhaled (inhaled air is about 21% oxygen) into the air sacs of the lungs  It is then immediately passed into tiny capillary blood vessels surrounding the air spaces

6 External respiration contd:  Simultaneously, carbon dioxide, ( a gas produced when oxygen and food combine in cells) passes from the capillary blood vessels into the air spaces of the lungs to be exhaled.  Exhaled air contains 16% oxygen  Mostly an involuntary activity

7 2. Internal respiration  Happens simultaneously as external respiration  Occurs between the individual body cells and the tiny capillary blood vessels  Involves an exchange of gases at the cells with in all organs of the body  Oxygen passes out of the blood stream into tissue cells

8 Cellular respiration:  Further use of the body cells to use oxygen to produce energy  Release of carbon dioxide and water

9 FYI: RR = respiratory rate Respiratory rate is the rate per minute of inhaling and exhaling A normal rate for an adult is 16 to 18 times a minute

10 Structures of Respiratory System  upper respiratory tract nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx and trachea  lower respiratory tract bronchial tree and lungs

11 Respiratory tract divided into:

12 Upper Respiratory tract:  Nose: (nostrils or nares).  When we inhale air enters the body through the nose via the nasal nares  Then passes trough the nasal cavity  This cavity is lined with mucous membranes and fine hairs called cilia that filter out foreign bodies and also warm and moisten the air

13 Nose  nasal cavity  nasal septum  mucous membrane mucus cilia olfactory receptors

14 Upper respiratory contd:  Pharynx (throat)  After passing through the nasal cavity air reaches the pharynx  A 5 inch muscular tube that extends from the base of the skull to the esophagus  The airway that connects the mouth and nose to the larynx

15 Pharynx: Divided into three sections

16 Pharynx contd:  Nasopharynx: nearest the nasal cavity and contain adenoids (masses of lymphatic tissue)  If enlarged it can obstruct airway  Equalize pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane.

17 Pharynx Contd:  Oropharynx: located behind the mouth  Muscular soft palate that contains the uvula and tonsils.

18 Pharynx contd:  Laryngopharynx: surrounds the opening of the esophagus  Also known as the hypo pharynx  Serves as a common passageway for food from the mouth and air from the nose  Divided into two branches larynx and esophagus

19 Pharynx  Nasopharynx adenoids or pharyngeal tonsils  oropharynx palatine tonsils  laryngopharynx larynx

20 Pharynx: Divided into three sections

21 Larynx: Voice box  Covered by the epiglottis which is a small flap of cartilage that is attached to the roof of the tongue  Connects the pharynx to the trachea (where air goes down into the lungs)  Contains the vocal cords and is surrounded by nine cartilages for support  Tension of the vocal cords determine the high or low pitch of the voice

22 Lower Respiratory Tract:

23 Trachea: Wind pipe  A 10 to 12 cm long tube  Extends into the chest  Serves as passageway for air into the bronchi  Kept open by 16 to 20 C shaped rings made of cartilage  Some of the rings make up the thyroid cartilage forming the Adams apple

24 Bronchi  Trachea branches into two tubes called bronchi  Bronchi = plural bronchus = singular  Right is primary (main) and shorter than the left  Each bronchus enters the lung and subdivides into smaller tubes  The smallest is called bronchioles

25 Bronchi contd:  At the end of the bronchioles are clusters of air sacs called alveoli  Alveoli = plural alveolus = singular  Each is lined with a layer of epithelium  This very thin wall permits the exchange of gasses between the alveoli and the capillaries

26 Lungs:  Located in the thoracic cavity  Right lung has three lobes  Left lung has two lobes  Oxygen passes from the lungs into the capillaries ( network of tiny blood vessels) that surround the alveoli and distributes them to the cells  Carbon dioxide from the blood cells passes into the lungs for removal

27 Right-3 lobesLeft-2 lobes Lungs trachea

28 Lungs contd:  When oxygen is absorbed into the blood it attaches to the hemoglobin and is released as needed.  Each lung is covered by a membrane called pleura  The outer layer (near the ribs) parietal pleura  The inner layer (closet to the lungs) visceral pleura

29 Lungs contd:  A serous fluid ( thin, watery lubricating fluid) moistens the pleura  This facilitates movement between the pleuras and prevent friction  Lungs extend from the collar bone to the diaphragm

30 Lungs contd:  Diaphragm: is a muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity  This muscles aids in the process of breathing  Breathing is the process of inhalation and exhalation

31 Lungs contd:  Inhalation: (inspiration) the diaphragm contracts and descends causing enlargement of the thoracic cavity area  This allows air to flow into the lungs to equalize the pressure

32 Inhalation  Breathing in  Body gets oxygen from the air  Rib muscles contract to pull ribs up and out  Diaphragm muscle contracts to pull down the lungs  Tissue expands to force (pull) in air.

33 Lungs contd:  Exhalation: (expiration) when the lungs are full, the diaphragm relaxes and elevates making the thoracic cavity smaller  This increases the air pressure in the thorax  Air is then expelled out of the lungs to equalize the pressure

34 Exhalation  Breathing out  Get rid of carbon dioxide  Rib muscles relax  Diaphragm muscle relaxes  Tissue returns to resting position and forces (pushes) air out


36 Respiratory Root Words:  Adenoid/oAdenoids  Alveol/oAlveolus, air sac  Atel/oImperfect, incomplete  Bronch/oBronchus  Bronchi/oBronchial tubes  Epiglott/oEpiglottis  Laryng/oLarynx  Nas/o, rhin/oNose

37 Root words contd:  Ox/o, Ox/ioxygen  Pharyng/othroat  Pleur/oPleura  Pneum/oLung, air  Pulmon/oLung  Spir/oTo breathe  Thorac/oChest  Tonsill/oTonsils  Trache/oTrachea

38 Respiratory Prefixes:  An-, a-Without, absent  Endo-Within  Inter-Between  Intra-Within

39 Respiratory suffixes:  -ar, -aryPertaining to  -capniaCarbon dioxide  -centesisSurgical puncture with needle to aspirate fluid  -ectasisStretching or expansion  -gramRecord  -graphyProcess of recording  -itisInflammation

40 Suffixes contd:  -ostomycreation of an artificial opening  -oxiaoxygen  -pneabreathing  -scopeinstrument used to examine  -scopyvisual examination  -stenosisnarrowing or contracting  -thoraxchest

41 Suffixes contd:  -ptysisspitting  -sphyxiapulse  -osmiasmell

42 A few lung disorders:  Lung abscess: a localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by the disintegration of tissue

43 Asthma  Spasm and narrowing of bronchi, leading to bronchial airway obstruction

44 Bronchitis  Inflammation of one or more bronchi

45 Coryza  Profuse discharge from the mucous membrane of the nose

46 Deviated septum  Defect in the wall between the nostrils that cause partial or complete obstruction

47 Epistaxis  Hemorrhage from the nose; nose bleed

48 Hiatal hernia  Protrusion of part of the stomach into the chest through the esophageal hiatus defect of the diaphragm

49 Pleural effusion  Accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, which compresses the underlying potion of the lung causing dyspnea

50 Emphysema:  Destruction of alveolar walls

51 Lung cancer  Leading cause of cancer death for men and women

52 Respiratory general terms  Anoxia - without oxygen  Apnea-temporary cessation of breathing  Aphonia- absence of voice  Bifurcation- a division into two branches  Bronchospasm- sporadic contraction of the bronchi muscle  Dysphonia- difficulty in speaking

53 Contd:  Cyanosis- a bluish discoloration of skin and mucous membranes due to insufficient oxygen in the blood  Eupnea- normal breathing  Hemoptysis- coughing up of blood from the lungs  Hyperventilation- increased rate and depth of respiration

54 Contd:  Hypoxia- insufficient oxygen  Orthopnea- difficult breathing except in upright position  Rales, rhonchi- abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation  Sputum- matter ejected from the trachea, bronchi, and lungs through the mouth

55 Diagnostic and instruments used:  Auscultation- listening to the lungs through a stethoscope  Percussion- short sharp blows to the body with the fingers  Bronchoscopy- lung examination using a bronchoscope  Endotracheal catheter- an airway catheter inserted into the trachea during surgery

56 Contd:  Oximetry- measurement of the oxygen saturation of arterial blood  Peak expiratory flow rate- measurement of how fast a person can exhale using a small hand held device

57 Medical procedures and tests:  Blood gases- blood drawn to check oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases in the blood  Bronchodilator- an agent used to dilate the bronchi  CPR- cardiopulmonary resuscitation  IPPB- intermittent positive pressure breathing  Larngectomy- excision of the larynx

58 Contd:  Lavage of sinuses- the irrigation or washing out of sinuses  Lobectomy- excision of a lobe of the lung  Mantoux- TB skin test  PPD- purified protein derivative (TB test)  Pulmonary function- test to assess ventilator status

59 Contd:  Rhinoplasty- plastic surgery of the nose  Scan- an image or picture produced using radioactive isotopes  Thoracentesis- surgical puncture of the chest wall into the parietal cavity to remove fluid  Tracheotomy- incision of the trachea through the skin and muscles of the neck

60 Bronchoscopy

61 Tracheotomy

62 The End!

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