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Respiratory System: Intakes oxygen Releases carbon dioxide waste Circulatory system: Transports gases in blood between lungs and cells Respiratory System:

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Presentation on theme: "Respiratory System: Intakes oxygen Releases carbon dioxide waste Circulatory system: Transports gases in blood between lungs and cells Respiratory System:"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Respiratory System: Intakes oxygen Releases carbon dioxide waste Circulatory system: Transports gases in blood between lungs and cells Respiratory System: Intakes oxygen Releases carbon dioxide waste Circulatory system: Transports gases in blood between lungs and cells Respiratory system works with Cardiovascular system

3 Respiratory system anatomy

4 Task… In order to gain a head start on the assessment you guys need to find a blank picture of the respiratory system and be able to label the following: nasal cavity; epiglottis; pharynx; larynx; trachea; bronchus; bronchioles; lungs (lobes, pleural membrane, thoracic cavity, visceral pleura, pleural fluid, alveoli); diaphragm; intercostal muscles (external and internal) In order to gain a head start on the assessment you guys need to find a blank picture of the respiratory system and be able to label the following: nasal cavity; epiglottis; pharynx; larynx; trachea; bronchus; bronchioles; lungs (lobes, pleural membrane, thoracic cavity, visceral pleura, pleural fluid, alveoli); diaphragm; intercostal muscles (external and internal)

5 If respiratory system and/or circulatory system fails, death will occur Cells need O 2 for work; release CO 2 as a waste product Accumulation of excess CO 2 is toxic to cells and MUST be removed If respiratory system and/or circulatory system fails, death will occur Cells need O 2 for work; release CO 2 as a waste product Accumulation of excess CO 2 is toxic to cells and MUST be removed The Importance of the RS

6 Nasal cavity – Space above and behind the nose – Made of cartilage and bone – Divided into 2 by a cartilaginous septum – Hairs within the nostrils filter out dust etc before air passes into two nasal cavities. – Designed to warm, moisten, and filter air before it passes to the nasopharynx – A mucous layer Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained Pharynx – (throat) – Funnel shaped – Connects to larynx and oesophagus – Small muscular tube Pharynx – (throat) – Funnel shaped – Connects to larynx and oesophagus – Small muscular tube – conducts food and air – exchanges air with Eustachian tube to equalize pressure – conducts food and air – exchanges air with Eustachian tube to equalize pressure

7 Larynx – (voice box) – Connects the pharynx and the trachea. – Made of cartilage and muscle – contains vocal cords – Helps us to speak Larynx – (voice box) – Connects the pharynx and the trachea. – Made of cartilage and muscle – contains vocal cords – Helps us to speak nasal cavity pharynx larynx Epiglottis ―flap of cartilage that covers trachea ―ensures food travels down the esophagus Epiglottis ―flap of cartilage that covers trachea ―ensures food travels down the esophagus Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained

8 larynx trachea bronchi bronchioles Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained

9 Each bronchi divides into – Lobar bronchi – Segmental bronchi – 23 branches in total – Tree

10 Bronchioles – – tiny tubes extend from the bronchi – lacking cartilage and cilia – possess smooth muscle bronchiole smooth muscle Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained – They about 1mm diameter – Terminate in clusters of alveoli

11 Lungs – Two cone shaped organs suspended in the pleural cavities – Surrounded by a pleural membrane – Made of elastic tissue – Divide into lobes – Right is larger as left has to accommodate the heart This space is known as the cardiac notch Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained

12 Lungs - lobes – Each lung is divided into lobes. – The right lung has three lobes – The left lung has only 2 lobes. Lungs - lobes – Each lung is divided into lobes. – The right lung has three lobes – The left lung has only 2 lobes. Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained

13 Pleural membrane – The lungs are surrounded by membranes known as pleura – These contain a cavity with fluid that lubricates the surfaces as the lungs expand and contract. – Their main job is to prevent friction and keep the lungs airtight, Pleural membrane – The lungs are surrounded by membranes known as pleura – These contain a cavity with fluid that lubricates the surfaces as the lungs expand and contract. – Their main job is to prevent friction and keep the lungs airtight, Visceral Pleura – Is the innermost of the two pleural membranes. It covers the surface of the lung Visceral Pleura – Is the innermost of the two pleural membranes. It covers the surface of the lung Pleural Fluid – The pleural membrane produces pleural fluid, which fills the space between the visceral and parietal pleura. This lubricating fluid allows the lungs to glide over one another easily. Pleural Fluid – The pleural membrane produces pleural fluid, which fills the space between the visceral and parietal pleura. This lubricating fluid allows the lungs to glide over one another easily.

14 Thoracic Cavity –This is the full name for the chamber of the chest that is protected by the thoracic wall. It is protected from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm Thoracic Cavity –This is the full name for the chamber of the chest that is protected by the thoracic wall. It is protected from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm

15 Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained Alveoli Around the bronchioles are 600 million alveoli in each lung. Each one is in contact with a capillary This is where exchange of O2 and CO2 takes place.

16 Alveoli Cup shaped structures that resemble bunches of grapes covered with SURFACTANT that keep them from collapsing Provide a huge area for gas exchange

17 Respiratory Muscles Intercostal muscles – External intercostals Contract to pull the rib cage up when we breathe in – Internal intercostals Contract to pull the rib cage down when we breathe out – Attach between the ribs Intercostal muscles – External intercostals Contract to pull the rib cage up when we breathe in – Internal intercostals Contract to pull the rib cage down when we breathe out – Attach between the ribs Diaphragm – Dome shaped muscle at the bottom of the ribcage – Breathing in - Contracts – flattens, making chest cavity larger and drawing air in. Diaphragm – Dome shaped muscle at the bottom of the ribcage – Breathing in - Contracts – flattens, making chest cavity larger and drawing air in.

18 Anatomy of the Respiratory system… Mouth & Nose. Air enters through the Mouth & Nose. Pharynx Passes through the Pharynx (back of throat). Larynx Passes through the Larynx (responsible for your voice production). Epiglottis Air passes over the Epiglottis (stops food going down our windpipe/trachea). Trachea Air enters the Trachea, membranous tube that delivers air to the lungs. Bronchi Trachea divides into 2 Bronchi, one into each lung. Bronchioles 2 main Bronchi divide into Bronchioles, which further subdivide 23 times into 8 million bronchioles in each lung. Alveoli Around the Bronchioles you will find groups of air sacs called Alveoli (600 million in each lung). Alveoli are the catalyst for gas exchange (O2 and CO2), as they are in contact with the capillaries. Mouth & Nose. Air enters through the Mouth & Nose. Pharynx Passes through the Pharynx (back of throat). Larynx Passes through the Larynx (responsible for your voice production). Epiglottis Air passes over the Epiglottis (stops food going down our windpipe/trachea). Trachea Air enters the Trachea, membranous tube that delivers air to the lungs. Bronchi Trachea divides into 2 Bronchi, one into each lung. Bronchioles 2 main Bronchi divide into Bronchioles, which further subdivide 23 times into 8 million bronchioles in each lung. Alveoli Around the Bronchioles you will find groups of air sacs called Alveoli (600 million in each lung). Alveoli are the catalyst for gas exchange (O2 and CO2), as they are in contact with the capillaries.


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