3Respiratory System-nose, passageways, lungs, and a muscle called the diaphragm.
4Major Function:-process by which an organism exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with its environment.
5Types of Respiration (3 types) 1. External Respiration- occurs in the lungs, exchange of gases between the air and your lungs. (alveoli)Internal Respiration- exchange of gases between the blood and body cells.Cellular Respiration- production of ATP (energy) in cells.
6Taking a Breath… -Inspiration: process of inhaling air Nitrogen 78% -CPR works because we don’t ONLY exhale Carbon Dioxide. We exhale a good amount of Oxygen as well.-Inspiration: process of inhaling airNitrogen 78%Oxygen 21%Carbon Dioxide .03%Other gases .97%-Expiration: process of exhaling airOxygen %Carbon Dioxide 4.49%-Lungs have a total capacity of approx 4-5 liters-You normally inhale approx .5 Liters-Exhaling, you have a residual volume of air left in your lungs of about1 Liter
7Nose: contains small hairs that filter particulates. Nasal Cavity: contain cilia that act as an additional filter of the incoming air. Also contains mucous that protects tissues, warms, and moistens the air.Pharynx: passageway leading to the trachea (contains 2 passageways for food and air)
8Epiglottis: keeps food from entering the trachea. NoseEpiglottis: keeps food from entering the trachea.Larynx: voice box, vocal cords, ‘Adams Apple’.Trachea (windpipe): leads to the bronchi tubes, made of cartilage. Mucous and cilia lined.
9Bronchioles: branchlike extensions of the main bronchi. NoseBronchus: 2 tubes that split off from the trachea, each lead to lung. Mucous and cilia lined.Bronchioles: branchlike extensions of the main bronchi.Alveoli: sacs in lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion between air and blood (capillaries).Diaphragm: muscle separating the thoracic from the abdominal cavities.
10Respiratory Structures -Nose: contains small hairs that filter particulates. -Nasal Cavities: contain cilia that act as an additional filter of the incoming air. Also contains mucous that protects tissues, warms, and moistens the air. -Pharynx: back of the throat; splits into the trachea and the esophagus.
11-Epiglottis: keeps food from entering the trachea -Epiglottis: keeps food from entering the trachea. -Larynx: voice box, vocal cords, ‘Adams Apple’. -Trachea (windpipe): leads to the bronchi tubes, made of cartilage. Mucous and cilia lined. -Bronchi Tubes: two tubes that split off from the trachea, each one leads to lung. Mucous and cilia lined.
12Into the lungs…-Bronchioles: branchlike extensions of the main bronchi. -Alveoli: sacs in lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion between the air and the blood. (capillaries)
13CO2…Where does it come from? Answer: Cellular Respiration!Gas Exchange in the Lungs:-occurs in the alveoli…surrounded by capillaries.-simple diffusion! (oxygen in; carbon dioxide out)-hemoglobin…carries the gases.-carbon dioxide is transported as bicarbonate ions in the blood.
14The act of breathing…-When you inhale, your rib muscles and diaphragm contract, expanding your chest cavity. (Diaphragm moves lower into the chest cavity.)
15-When you exhale, your rib muscles and diaphragm relax, returning your chest cavity to a resting position forcing air out.Yawning Hiccups
16Respiration Control…-Breathing is an involuntary response. (controlled by the brain and brain stem)-Receptors in the medulla oblongata detect high amounts of carbon dioxide and send signals to your rib muscles and diaphragm.-Oxygen receptors in the aorta and carotid arteries send signals to the brain when the oxygen level is too low.
17Respiratory Illnesses -Asthma: contraction of the bronchioles due to an allergic reaction.-Bronchitis: bacterial infection in the bronchioles.-Emphysema: rupturing of the alveoli (smoking).-Pneumonia: virus and bacterial infection (severe).-Lung Cancer