Presentation on theme: "The Respiratory System. Overview Respiratory System -nose, passageways, lungs, and a muscle called the diaphragm."— Presentation transcript:
The Respiratory System
Respiratory System -nose, passageways, lungs, and a muscle called the diaphragm.
Major Function: -process by which an organism exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with its environment.
Types of Respiration (3 types) 1. External Respiration- occurs in the lungs, exchange of gases between the air and your lungs. (alveoli) 2.Internal Respiration- exchange of gases between the blood and body cells. 3.Cellular Respiration- production of ATP (energy) in cells.
Taking a Breath… -Inspiration: process of inhaling air Nitrogen78% Oxygen21% Carbon Dioxide.03% Other gases.97% -Expiration: process of exhaling air Nitrogen78% Oxygen16.54% Carbon Dioxide4.49% Other gases.97% -CPR works because we don’t ONLY exhale Carbon Dioxide. We exhale a good amount of Oxygen as well. -Lungs have a total capacity of approx 4-5 liters -You normally inhale approx.5 Liters -Exhaling, you have a residual volume of air left in your lungs of about1 Liter
Nose: contains small hairs that filter particulates. Nasal Cavity: contain cilia that act as an additional filter of the incoming air. Also contains mucous that protects tissues, warms, and moistens the air. Pharynx: passageway leading to the trachea (contains 2 passageways for food and air) Nose
Epiglottis: keeps food from entering the trachea. Larynx: voice box, vocal cords, ‘Adams Apple’. Trachea (windpipe): leads to the bronchi tubes, made of cartilage. Mucous and cilia lined.
Nose Bronchus: 2 tubes that split off from the trachea, each lead to lung. Mucous and cilia lined. Bronchioles: branchlike extensions of the main bronchi. Alveoli: sacs in lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion between air and blood (capillaries). Diaphragm: muscle separating the thoracic from the abdominal cavities.
Respiratory Structures -Nose: contains small hairs that filter particulates. -Nasal Cavities: contain cilia that act as an additional filter of the incoming air. Also contains mucous that protects tissues, warms, and moistens the air. -Pharynx: back of the throat; splits into the trachea and the esophagus.
-Epiglottis: keeps food from entering the trachea. -Larynx: voice box, vocal cords, ‘Adams Apple’. -Trachea (windpipe): leads to the bronchi tubes, made of cartilage. Mucous and cilia lined. -Bronchi Tubes: two tubes that split off from the trachea, each one leads to lung. Mucous and cilia lined.
Into the lungs… -Bronchioles: branchlike extensions of the main bronchi. -Alveoli: sacs in lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion between the air and the blood. (capillaries)
CO 2 …Where does it come from? Answer: Cellular Respiration! Gas Exchange in the Lungs: -occurs in the alveoli…surrounded by capillaries. -simple diffusion! (oxygen in; carbon dioxide out) -hemoglobin…carries the gases. -carbon dioxide is transported as bicarbonate ions in the blood.
The act of breathing… -When you inhale, your rib muscles and diaphragm contract, expanding your chest cavity. (Diaphragm moves lower into the chest cavity.)
-When you exhale, your rib muscles and diaphragm relax, returning your chest cavity to a resting position forcing air out. YawningYawning HiccupsHiccups
Respiration Control… -Breathing is an involuntary response. (controlled by the brain and brain stem) -Receptors in the medulla oblongata detect high amounts of carbon dioxide and send signals to your rib muscles and diaphragm. -Oxygen receptors in the aorta and carotid arteries send signals to the brain when the oxygen level is too low.
Respiratory Illnesses -Asthma: contraction of the bronchioles due to an allergic reaction. -Bronchitis: bacterial infection in the bronchioles. -Emphysema: rupturing of the alveoli (smoking). -Pneumonia: virus and bacterial infection (severe). -Lung Cancer