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THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Chapter 17. Introduction Organs: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs Respiration: exchange of O 2 / CO 2 between atmosphere,

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Presentation on theme: "THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Chapter 17. Introduction Organs: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs Respiration: exchange of O 2 / CO 2 between atmosphere,"— Presentation transcript:

1 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Chapter 17

2 Introduction Organs: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs Respiration: exchange of O 2 / CO 2 between atmosphere, blood and cells Cardiovascular and respiratory systems work together to supply O 2 to and remove CO 2 from cells

3 THE ANATOMY AND FUNCTIONS OF THE NOSE

4 The Anatomy and Functions of the Nose (cont’d.)

5 External nares: openings into the nose Internal nares: connect nose and pharynx Coarse hairs line the vestibules –Filter large dust particles

6 The Anatomy and Functions of the Nose (cont’d.) Three shelves: formed by turbinate bones –Superior, middle and inferior meatus Olfactory receptors: located in the superior meatus Functions of internal nose –Warm and moisturize air, smell, speech tone

7 THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE PHARYNX

8 The Structure and Functions of the Pharynx (cont’d.) Functions –Passageway for food –Passageway for air –Resonating chamber for speech

9 The Structure and Functions of the Pharynx (cont’d.) Divisions –Nasopharynx: internal nares and Eustachian tubes –Oropharynx: connection to mouth (fauces) –Laryngopharynx: connects with esophagus and larynx

10 THE LARYNX OR VOICE BOX

11 The Larynx or Voice Box (cont’d.) Supporting cartilage –Thyroid cartilage: largest, Adam’s apple –Epiglottis: prevents food and liquids from entering trachea –Cricoid: connects with first tracheal ring

12 The Larynx or Voice Box (cont’d.) Supporting cartilage –Arytenoid: attach to vocal cords and laryngeal muscles –Corniculate and cuneiform: connect epiglottis to arytenoid cartilage

13 The Larynx or Voice Box (cont’d.) Form and function –Mucous membrane: two pairs of folds False vocal cords True vocal cords –Glottis: opening over true vocal cords –Sound produced by air vibrating vocal cords

14 The Larynx or Voice Box (cont’d.)

15 THE TRACHEA OR WINDPIPE

16 The Trachea or Windpipe (cont’d.) Tubular passageway for air –Anterior to esophagus –Extends from cricoid cartilage to fifth thoracic vertebra Pseudostratified epithelium with cilia and goblet cells Smooth muscle and connective tissue

17 The Trachea or Windpipe (cont’d.) Supporting cartilage: stack of Cs Cough reflex stimulated by foreign object Tracheostomy done if object cannot be expelled –Usually done between second and third tracheal cartilages –Can be closed when object removed

18 THE BRONCHI AND THE BRONCHIAL TREE

19 The Bronchi and the Bronchial Tree (cont’d.)

20 Trachea branches into left and right primary bronchi Primary bronchi branch into secondary bronchi Secondary bronchi branch into tertiary bronchi

21 The Bronchi and the Bronchial Tree (cont’d.) Tertiary bronchi branch into bronchioles Bronchioles branch into terminal bronchioles

22 THE ANATOMY AND FUNCTION OF THE LUNGS

23 The Anatomy and Function of the Lungs (cont’d.) Pleural membrane: encloses and protects lungs –Parietal pleura: outer –Visceral pleura: inner –Pleural cavity: between pleura, prevents friction Pleurisy: inflammation of parietal pleura

24 The Anatomy and Function of the Lungs (cont’d.) Segments: supplied by each tertiary bronchi Lobules –Wrapped in elastic connective tissue –Each has: lymphatic, arteriole, venule, bronchioles Terminal bronchioles subdivide into respiratory bronchioles

25 The Anatomy and Function of the Lungs (cont’d.) Respiratory bronchioles divide into alveolar ducts Alveoli surround the alveolar ducts –Grapelike outpouching –Surrounded by capillary network

26 The Anatomy and Function of the Lungs (cont’d.) Respiratory gases pass through alveolar- capillary membrane –Coated with surfactant: reduces surface tension

27 THE RESPIRATION PROCESS

28 The Respiration Process (cont’d.) Ventilation or breathing –Inhalation Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract Pressure decreases in lungs: air rushes in –Exhalation Diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax Pressure increases in lungs: air rushes out

29 The Respiration Process (cont’d.) External respiration –Exchange of gases between lungs and blood Internal respiration –Exchange of gases between blood and body cells

30 The Respiration Process (cont’d.) Partial pressure of gas –Amount of pressure gas contributes to total pressure –Directly proportional to concentration of gas Gas diffuses from high partial pressure to low partial pressure

31 The Respiration Process (cont’d.) Lung capacity –Functional residual capacity: volume of gas in lungs at the end of a normal tidal volume exhalation –Inspiratory capacity: maximum volume of gas that can be inhaled from end of resting exhalation

32 The Respiration Process (cont’d.) Lung capacity –Total lung capacity: volume of gas in lungs at end of maximum inspiration –Vital capacity: maximum volume of air that can be expelled at normal rate of exhalation after a maximum inspiration

33 Animation – Respiration Click Here to Play Respiration Animation

34 Animation – Intercostal Retractions The following animation illustrates how a restricted airway reduces pressure within the chest cavity, causing the intercostal muscles to move inward, or retract Click Here to Play Intercostal Retractions Animation

35 Animation – Asthma Read the Health Alert on Asthma in your textbook. Now watch the asthma animation. Click Here to Play Asthma Animation

36 Summary Named the organs of the respiratory system and their functions Discussed the parts of the nose, the pharynx, the larynx and the trachea Described the bronchial tree

37 Summary (cont’d.) Discussed the structure and function of the lungs including gas exchange Described the respiratory process


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