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WORLD WAR I CICERO © 2008
CAUSES The immediate cause of World War I was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary in Sarajevo. Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Serbian Black Hand secret society killed Ferdinand. Conflicts between Austria-Hungary and Serbia started with a challenge to the 1878 Treaty of Berlin. Under that treaty, Austria- Hungary assumed a mandate to occupy and control Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Ottoman Empire kept its sovereignty, and Serbia was recognized as a kingdom; however, Serbians were incensed that Austria-Hungary had annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina during the Bosnian crisis of 1908 and Archduke Franz Ferdinand (left) and Gavrilo Princip CICERO © 2008
DECLARATIONS OF WAR August 22, 1914 – Austria-Hungary declares war on Belgium. August 23, 1914 – Japan declares war on Germany. August 25, 1914 – Japan declares war on Austria- Hungary. November 1, 1914 – Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire. November 3, 1914 – Montenegro declares war on the Ottoman Empire. November 5, 1914 – France and United Kingdom declare war on the Ottoman Empire. May 23, 1915 – Italy declares war on Austria- Hungary. October 14, 1915 – Bulgaria declares war on Serbia. October 15, 1915 – United Kingdom declares war on Bulgaria. The is a diagram of the alliances before World War I. CICERO © 2008
DECLARATIONS OF WAR October 16, 1915 – Frances declares war on Bulgaria October 19, 1915 – Italy and Russia declare war on Bulgaria. August 27, 1916 – Italy declares war on Germany. The diagram represents European alliances before World War I. coat of arms of Bulgaria CICERO © 2008
PARTICIPANTS IN WORLD WAR I ALLIED POWERSCENTRAL POWERS United States British Empire French Third Republic Kingdom of Serbia Kingdom of Romania Empire of Japan Russian Empire Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Greece Kingdom of Montenegro Belgium Portugal Bulgaria Ottoman Empire Austria- Hungary German Empire CICERO © 2008
WEAPONS land ship/tankbarbed wire Maxim machine gun hand grenade poison gassubmarine bi-plane CICERO © 2008
STRATEGIES TRENCH WARFARE In trench warfare both armies could fight from fortified positions. It was a slow form of combat with heavy reliance on defense. The soldiers built complex trench and dugout systems and stocked them with weapons. Barbed wire protected the trenches. The space between opposing armies’ trenches was “no man’s land.” Attacks almost always resulted in injury and death for the attacking soldiers. CICERO © 2008
THE IMPORTANCE OF TRENCH WARFARE Trench warfare was an important part of combat during World War I. The effectiveness of the new weapons made it impossible to fight in the open for extended periods of time. Trenches were constructed for careful and planned attacks. The trench protected soldiers from attack. Soldiers also dug temporary trenches as close to the front lines as possible. These would protect waves of soldiers attacking the enemy. Attacking soldiers would take cover in a forward trench to regroup while other soldiers followed the first attack. Trenches kept soldiers out of the line of fire as much as possible. British trench design CICERO © 2008
OBJECTIVES ALLIED POWERSCENTRAL POWERS The main objective of the Allied Powers was to stop Germany and the Central Powers’ attempts to expand their land in Europe and Asia. The American conflict with Germany stemmed from Germany’s violation of a neutrality agreement when German submarines attacked American passenger ships. The main objective of the Central Powers was to acquire as much land as possible in Europe and Asia. Germany believed France, England, and Russia prevented its expansion. Germany was determined to expand its borders. CICERO © 2008
THE UNITED STATES ENTERS WORLD WAR I an American doughboy circa 1918 United States President Woodrow Wilson announces a break in diplomatic relations with Germany on February 3, Originally, the United States pursued a policy of isolationism. After a German U-boat sank the British passenger ship Lusitania, President Woodrow Wilson demanded Germany end attacks on passenger ships. The British Royal Navy then intercepted the Zimmerman telegram in which a German diplomat encouraged Mexican officials to ally with German if the United States declared war on Germany. These events as well as the sinking of American merchant ships led the United States Congress to declare war on Germany on April 6, CICERO © 2008
ARMISTICE ENDS THE WAR After a three days of negotiations, representatives of the Allied Powers and Germany signed the armistice on a railway carriage in Compiegne Forest on November 11, The expression “the eleventh of the eleventh of the eleventh” is derived from this date. The armistice went into effect at the eleventh hour, on the eleventh day, of the eleventh month. According to the armistice, German troops were to leave Belgium, France, and the eastern bank of the Rhine. The remainder of the German fleet was forced to surrender its weapons and ships to the Allied Powers. Germany also was forced to renounce its peace treaties with Russia and Romania. The armistice was reached on November 11, CICERO © 2008
THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES David Lloyd George (United Kingdom), Vittorio Orlando (Italy), Georges Clemenceau (France), and Woodrow Wilson (United States) The Treaty of Versailles officially ended World War I. It was signed on June 28, 1919, at the Paris Peace Conference even though the armistice had been in place since November 11, Germany and its allies were required to accept full responsibility for World War I. Germany was required to disarm and concede any territorial gains made during the war. In addition, Germany was required to pay reparations to any countries it damaged during the war. CICERO © 2008
AFTERMATH OF WORLD WAR I future Chancellor of Germany, Adolf Hitler In the aftermath of World War I, other conflicts that were a direct result of the war took place. Germans believed the Treaty of Versailles was unfairly punitive. Adolf Hitler gained popularity in Germany when he urged Germans to fight the injustices imposed on them after World War I. The collapse of the Ottoman Empire caused conflicts as nations sought to control territory in the Middle East. These conflict would intensify throughout the twentieth century and into the twenty-first century. CICERO © 2008
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