Presentation on theme: "Year 11 Exam Revision 2009 Everything you need to know !"— Presentation transcript:
Year 11 Exam Revision 2009 Everything you need to know !
Fibres and Fabrics Remember the different fibre origins - NATURAL – Cotton, Linen, (Plants) Wool (Animal hair) Silk (worms/moths) MAN MADE / SYNTHETIC – Nylon, Polyester, Acrylic, PVC, Elastane (coal, chemicals and oil) MAN MADE/ REGENERATED - Viscose, Rayon, Acetate (wood pulp) All fibres are twisted and spun into YARN
Fabric Construction Once fibres are spun into yarn, they are made into a fabric in three main different ways- WOVEN – made on a loom they have warp and weft threads. Different ways of weaving = Plain weave - Twill weave – i.e Denim Satin weave – i.e satin Pile weave – i.e velvet Woven fabrics are hardwearing and easy care. Different patterns can be woven-stripes, checks
Fabric Construction KNITTED – Made using needles (By hand) or on machines, sometimes circular. Made by loops of yarn – Makes it stretchy Weft Knit – Most T – shirts, jumpers made by this. The loops go across. Warp Knit – Only made by machine. Loops go down and do not ladder. - Swimsuits, sportswear Knitted fabrics are fitting, usually warm and STRETCH!
Fabric Construction – Non -woven BONDED FABRICS- These fabrics are usually bonded together with pressure, adhesive and heat. i.e Felt and interfacing are bonded fabrics. These do not have a grain so do not fray when cut These cannot be washed regularly as they are not durable (fall apart after a while)
Fabric performance characteristics Performance characterisitcs = How a fabric, looks, feels and behaves. The fibre and fabric construction can effect this. KEY THINGS to remember - Cotton – washable, very absorbant, can be cool to wear, comfortable Linen – Creases easily, cool to wear, anti bacterial and dirt repelling Silk – Lustre (Has a sheen) smooth, stains easily, expensive Wool – Insulating(warm) anti flammable, Not easy care – shrinks easily, heavy when wet Repels raindrops
Performance Characteristics Nylon – Very strong, can have a lustre Very hardwearing, crease resistant Polyester – Water repellent, easy care. PVC – wipe clean, dirt repellent, shiny Viscose – LIKE cotton – Very absorbant, creases easily Acrylic – LIKE Wool – Warm, but easy care Rayon – LIKE Silk – Shiny, but cheaper to make
Performance Characteristics Exam tip –If you get a question on this, consider a product that is usually made by the fibre and what it needs to do for example - Polyester – Used for umberellas = Repels water Cotton – used for towels = Absorbant, easy care Acrylic – Used for jumpers = Warm to wear Don't forget – FABRIC CONSTRUCTION Denim = cotton – easy care Twill weave = Dirt repelling and hardwearing
Fabric testing How do we know a fabrics performance characteristics – We test it! All tests – (In industry are done under strict laboratory conditions. A 'control' piece of the fabric is kept to compare the test pieces against Tests can be for - Flammability, Waterproofness, Windproofness, Drape, Stretch, Aftercare, Durability, Strength and Absorbancy
Fabric Finishes These are processes that are added to a fabric to enhance its performance characteristics Examples include - Brushing – to make a fluffier surface = warmer Calendering and mercerizing = shinier Waterproofing, flameproofing, Stain resistant, Crease resistant, Anti-static and Anti felting Finishes are often used on large surfaces, furnishings, floor coverings and workwear DON'T GET FABRIC FINISHES AND PRODUCT FINISHING MIXED UP!
Product Construction - Seams Know your seams! Plain seam -(needs edges finishing) French seam -strong, sheer fabrics Flat felled seam – jeans, shorts, bags Know different methods of finishing seams! Overlocking Zig zag stitch Binding Don't forget Hems – Finishing Edges!
Product Construction – Reducing fullness Reducing fullness is when you give shape to a product – especially clothing Darts – Make curves – Hips, Bust, waist Tucks, Pleats, - skirts, lampshades Gathering – dresses, sleeves Smocking, shirts, blouses
Decorative techniques You need to know the NAMES of different ways to decorate products and HOW to do it. Applique – sewing or bonding fabric onto fabric Quilting – Sewing through 3 layers, fabric, wadding, fabric to trap air creating warmth Embroidery – Done by programmed machines in industry. Usually a satin stitch to fill in areas. Patchwork – Recycles old pieces of fabric. Shapes sewn together to create patterns. Accurate measurements are vital!
Decorative Techniques – Print and Dye Printing – Hand and machine processes similar Block (H) = Roller (M) Carved surface that creates a repeat pattern Screen (H & M) Areas of a screen masked off and fabric paint pushed through. Transfer (H &M) the reverse design is printed onto transfer paper and heat and pressure is used to transfer it on to fabric Dyeing – Involves water and salt to fix the dye to the fabric Tie dye and Batik are resist methods using ties or wax to stop the dye penetrating areas of the fabric Continuous and batch dyeing are methods in industry
Equipment and Components You need to know the difference between these Equipment is what you use to create a product - Sewing machine, needle, scissors, pins Components are items you add on to the fabric. fastenings, structural or decorative. Consider hidden components such as lining, interfacing, boning and elastic too.
Equipment in Industry You need to consider what may be used in Batch production. Pattern grading (sizing of products) and Layplans are created using CAD Fabric is spread out and cut using machines, specialist cutters or even a laser (can use CAM) Specialist machines for joining, buttonholes, zips and overlocking are used. This is the only process that HAS to be done by people. Pressing fabric or end product can use moulding or top pressing (Giving creases)
Production Systems You need to know the differences between; One- off/Bespoke/ Job, Batch and Mass/ Volume Consider - costs, workers, materials equipment, quality time and types of product. Made to Measure, Haute Couture and tailoring (Job) is made to fit a person or environments specific measurements and requirements Off the Peg, Ready to wear (Batch/Mass) are clothing that is made to a standard size and fits most people Repetitive flow – (Mass) The making of products, people repeat the same process on a large amount of items i.e sew a collar on Contniual flow – (Mass) An assembly line of production. Runs 24 hours a day Cell system and Progressive Bundle system – (Batch) The organisation of workers to create a product. In line assembly involves more machines Just in Time (Batch) – manages the stock of materials. Orders what they need last minute and it arrives immediately to meet demands of consumers
Health and Safety in the Workplace Employees have a duty to workers to ensure their work environmental has no potential hazards or risks.(1974 The health and safety Work Act) Organisation of work place is vital – consider, light, tidiness, wires, disposal of waste, heating and ventilation. Risk Assessment – Assessing level of risk Storage of chemicals (Consider dyes, bleaches and finishes) must be stored and handled carefully and contain warnings. (COSHH 1994 law) Protective clothing – gloves, steel toe capped boots, googles, masks, shemical suits and even helmets may be worn depending on process. Machine guards – To protect hand and fingers.
Quality and safety of products Quality control checks through the making of a products makes sure it is made to a high, acceptable standard Quality Assurance is the manufacturers guarantee that safety laws have been abided by and the product is ' fit for purpose' Quality control inspections look at fabric, various points in product construction, size, safety and packaging. British Standards ensure quality and for safety some products MUST meet the standards set. Sometimes Manufacturers elect to have their product tested to gain the Kitemark. This is NOT a legal requirment but the CE mark is in Europe. Childrens products MUST pass safety procedures as products could be deemed dangerous.
Smart Materials These are fabrics that have been developed to perform a particular function. Textiles that can react and adapt to environmental conditions. Usually developed for Aerospace and transport, The Military, and medical purposes. Anti – Bacterial fabrics encapsulated with substances to combat sweat and odour. Heat reacting fabrics (hypacolour) change colour in diffeent temperatures Interactive Textiles – Includes transmitters, tracking devices and can still be easy care
Environmental concerns CONCERNS - Fibre production – Cotton uses pesticides, Synthetics uses chemicals = pollution and uses non renewable sources to create fibres. Making fabrics and products requires energy, and produces waste Fabric Finishes involves chemicals Products can use packaging not easily disposed of Transporting products requires energy Cleaning/ After care of products requires energy POSITIVE CHANGES Fibre production – creating pest resistant cotton and organic cotton so pesticides not needed as much. Recycling products encouraged Recycling water, and natural/Green energy to provide power. Biodegradable chemicals used that are not harmful to the earth and waste disposed of safely. Making less or recycable packaging – Less plastic bags! Use biodegradable detergents used to clean clothes and now wash at lower temperatures = less energy needed
Prouct Analysis You will be asked to look at a product in detail. Design features – This means what types of things does it have – components, decoration. Modifications – This means what changes may you make to improve the product. Consider it's function and give examples of components and decoration even construction and explain WHY if it requires you to. If you are asked to draw something, add colour. It usually says what you need to include in your design, Make sure you DO and LABEL it!
And to conclude...... Try to answer all questions even if you don't know....GUESS. You may get lucky! Good Luck Year 11 – We will be thinking of you! X