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Authored By Lt Colonel Garrett L. Sager 17-Mar-2007 TX-129 th Fort Worth Senior Squadron Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior.

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Presentation on theme: "Authored By Lt Colonel Garrett L. Sager 17-Mar-2007 TX-129 th Fort Worth Senior Squadron Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior."— Presentation transcript:

1 Authored By Lt Colonel Garrett L. Sager 17-Mar-2007 TX-129 th Fort Worth Senior Squadron Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev Jan-2014

2 This Training Slide Show is a project undertaken by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell of the TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron, Fort Worth, TX for local use to assist those CAP Members interested in advancing their skills. The information contained herein is for CAP Member’s personal use and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for any of the CAP National Training Programs. Users should review the presentation’s Revision Number at the end of each file name to ensure that they have the most current publication.

3 Pilot Continuation Training Flight Operations  Flight Operations:  Use of Checklists  Aircraft Performance Review  Takeoffs and Landings  Crosswind Limits/Landing Techniques  Emergencies

4  Use of Checklists  Proper use of checklists aid us in operating our aircraft safely and efficiently  Used as backup on tasks we already know - NOT A “DO” LIST  We already know how to fly – using the checklist ensures we don’t miss anything Pilot Continuation Training Flight Operations Checklists

5  Use of Checklists  They assist in transitioning to new aircraft and equipment  Checklist discipline is the mark of a “pro” Pilot Continuation Training Flight Operations Checklists

6  Use of Checklists - Safety  Ensure the aircraft and it’s systems are in the proper configuration for the current or upcoming phase of flight  An integral part of Sterile Cockpit Procedures  Emergency items should be committed to memory Pilot Continuation Training Flight Operations Checklists

7  Use of Checklists - Safety  Some accident causes related to poor checklist use  Takeoff with the control lock installed  Fuel starvation due to failure to switch tanks, or failure to lean properly  Gear-up landings  Attempted Takeoff with full flaps  Door opens in flight, due to failure to latch properly  Failure to set up navigation and com radios, especially for instrument approaches Pilot Continuation Training Flight Operations Checklists

8  Use of Checklists - Efficiency  Cruise checklist includes items like  Cowl flaps closed – reduce drag  Lean for power setting – reduce fuel consumption  Propeller / RPM setting for optimum speed, fuel burn, and passenger comfort. Pilot Continuation Training Flight Operations Checklists

9  Performance Refers to  Takeoff & landing distances  Rate of Climb  Cruise Speed  Service Ceiling Pilot Continuation Training Performance Reviews

10  All Performance Parameters are effected by  Aircraft Weight & CG  Density Altitude  CG location also effects Stability and Controllability Pilot Continuation Training Performance Reviews

11  Effects of Weight  A heavier airplane  Accelerates more slowly during the takeoff roll  Requires more airspeed to fly  Requires more takeoff distance  Distance = (Takeoff Speed) 2 / 2*acceleration  Acceleration = Thrust / Mass  mass = Weight / gravity Pilot Continuation Training Performance Reviews

12  Increased weight reduces rate of climb  Rate of climb is inversely proportional to weight  Higher speed & lift coefficient increase DRAG  Induced drag increases at higher angles of attack, increasing total drag.  ROC = (Thrust – Drag)*Velocity / Weight Pilot Continuation Training Performance Reviews

13  Density Altitude  Combination of Pressure Altitude & Temperature  Reduces available power from the engine  Increase Takeoff Distance  Decreases Climb Rate  Increases TAS & GS for the same IAS.  Increases Takeoff Distance Pilot Continuation Training Performance Reviews

14  Combine High Gross Weight & High Density Altitude  Both compound to reduce performance  Extra care must be taken in planning flight to account for reduced performance  Offload fuel, personnel and/or excess equipment to reduce weight  Plan departure for early in the morning, before temperature rises  Lean for “Best Power” before Takeoff  Service Ceiling is also reduced, as ROC drops with altitude Pilot Continuation Training Performance Reviews

15  During a “hot & heavy” climb  Airspeed control is critical, as +/- 10 kias can greatly effect climb rate  Turns should be minimized and executed gently to maximize climb  Adjust mixture as necessary to maintain “best power”.  “Step Climb” as fuel is burned off 10gph, aircraft weight reduces by 60 lbs. each hour Pilot Continuation Training Performance Reviews

16  In Cruise  A heavy airplane at a high density altitude “mushes” through the sky  Higher angle of attack increases drag  Close cowl flaps, and trim for coordinated flight to reduce drag. Pilot Continuation Training Performance Reviews

17  CG Effects  Aft CG reduces the amount of balancing force required from the stabilizer, reducing “trim drag”  Fwd CG increases trim drag, as well as elevator force required for takeoff rotation and landing flare Pilot Continuation Training Performance Reviews

18  Takeoffs and Landings  Takeoffs & Landings are critical phases of flight  From the 2006 Nall Report,  65% of all accidents  Takeoff & climb %; landing %; descent/approach - 4.6%; and go-around - 4.0%  33.4% of Fatal Accidents  Takeoff & climb %; landing - 3.3%; descent/approach %; and go-around - 6.2% Pilot Continuation Training Takeoffs & Landings

19  Takeoffs and Landings  During transition to & from flight, the aircraft doesn’t quite have enough airspeed to fly, yet has enough airspeed that it doesn’t want to stay on the ground, either.  Flying the airplane requires 100% attention, with no distractions.  Maintain Sterile Cockpit Pilot Continuation Training Takeoffs & Landings

20  Takeoffs  Before taxiing onto the runway for takeoff  Close out all checklist items  Verify that the aircraft is in the proper configuration  Calculate takeoff performance, accounting for  Density Altitude  Aircraft Loading & CG  Runway condition, slope, & obstacles  Set initial departure heading / course, and set navigation equipment accordingly Pilot Continuation Training Takeoffs & Landings

21  Takeoffs  Before taxiing onto the runway for takeoff  Stow unneeded charts & equipment  Inform crew / passengers of Sterile Cockpit Rules  Review Emergency Procedures  Engine Failure  Fire  Complete as many tasks ahead of time as possible, to reduce workload when rolling & in- flight Pilot Continuation Training Takeoffs & Landings

22  Takeoffs  During the takeoff roll  Verify engine & flight instruments indicate correctly  Maintain positive control of the aircraft at all times  Too often, pilots seem to push in full power and then just “hang on for the ride”.  Apply crosswind corrections as needed  Rotate at the proper airspeed, to transition to flight as smoothly and quickly as possible. Pilot Continuation Training Takeoffs & Landings

23  Takeoffs  After Liftoff  Pitch to Vx or Vy, as necessary  Retract gear (as applicable) once +ROC is established  Turn to assigned heading, or initial departure course (obstacle departure procedures).  FAA suggests no turns until within 300 ft of pattern altitude on visual departure Pilot Continuation Training Takeoffs & Landings

24  Takeoffs  Clear of all obstacles & at safe altitude  Retract flaps incrementally once safe altitude is reached (usually 500 ft AGL)  Establish on assigned heading or departure course  Set climb power, as applicable (usually 500 ft AGL)  Adjust mixture & prop as necessary  Trim and “clean up” for Cruise Climb  Close out Climb Checklist Pilot Continuation Training Takeoffs & Landings

25  Landings  Before entering the pattern, or establishing on initial approach course  Close out applicable items of pre-landing checklist  Obtain ATIS/AWOS/ASOS 15 – 20 miles out  Critical items are winds, ceiling & visibility, and altimeter setting  Brief the approach, and set up com & navigation equipment as applicable  Reduce Power and Slow Down  Give yourself time to think Pilot Continuation Training Takeoffs & Landings

26  Landings – Visual Pattern  Entering Pattern  45 entry to Downwind Leg, from downwind side  Crosswind entry from Upwind side  Descend to pattern altitude BEFORE entering pattern  Broadcast intentions on CTAF 5 – 10 miles out  Listen & Look for other traffic Pilot Continuation Training Takeoffs & Landings

27  Landings - Visual pattern  Close-out checklist before turning final, except hold final landing flaps until runway is assured  Provides most of the benefits of flaps with less drag, in case a go-around is necessary.  Increases the chances of a successful landing if the engine fails on final  GUMPS check on Downwind, Verify on Final Pilot Continuation Training Takeoffs & Landings

28  Landings – Visual Pattern  Stabilize final approach, focus on airspeed, alignment and glide path control.  With configuration set, pitch for airspeed, power for altitude  Compensate for Crosswind as necessary Pilot Continuation Training Takeoffs & Landings

29  Landings - Instrument Approaches  As previously stated,  Close out applicable items on landing checklist  Set up radios, brief the approach and obtain weather before initial approach fix  Fly and navigate the aircraft throughout the approach, double-checking setup as part of instrument scan  Compensate for X-winds on Final Approach Course Pilot Continuation Training Takeoffs & Landings

30  Landings - Instrument Approaches  Verbally callout position & key events  Hearing yourself say it helps in verification  At FAF, extend landing gear and approach flaps, reduce power as necessary  Adds drag for final descent  STABILIZE APPROACH  The goal is to minimize workload Pilot Continuation Training Takeoffs & Landings

31  Landings - Instrument Approaches  On ILS, manage needles and airspeed with small corrections to heading, pitch and power.  STABILIZED APPROACH  Approximate power set, requiring only subtle changes  Aircraft trimmed for approach speed  Aircraft mean heading marked with “bug”, requiring slight changes for x-wind variance Pilot Continuation Training Takeoffs & Landings

32  Landings - Instrument Approaches  Non-precision approaches – “Dive & drive” as applicable to next fix  Step down altitude fixes or MDA  Goal is to get below overcast quickly to look for the airport, on configuration and speed for landing Pilot Continuation Training Takeoffs & Landings

33  Landings – Additional tips  Land on the center line  “Aim Point” is the spot on the runway that neither moves up nor down in the windshield during approach  Adjust glide path with power & configuration (flaps) to place aim point near the end of the runway  Avoid abrupt maneuvers in the pattern, especially on final approach Pilot Continuation Training Takeoffs & Landings

34  Landings – Additional tips  Avoid abrupt maneuvers in the pattern, especially on final approach  If overshooting base – final turn, add power and apply coordinated control inputs to re-establish final approach course.  Always be prepared to go-around if things don’t look right  Maintain coordinated flight, and adequate airspeed margin all the way to the runway  Know Approximate Power Settings Pilot Continuation Training Takeoffs & Landings

35  Crosswinds  Crosswind technique is a continuous trouble area in pilot skill  Many pilots are taught the mechanics, without really understanding the effects. Pilot Continuation Training Crosswind Operations

36  Crosswinds  “Demonstrated Crosswind” listed in POH is not an actual aircraft limit, but merely the highest crosswind that the manufacturer showed the aircraft to be controllable.  Flying in crosswinds higher than that makes you a test pilot  In CAP, if POH shows no Max Crosswind (as with some older airplanes), CAPR60-1 specifies 15 kts Pilot Continuation Training Crosswind Operations

37  Crosswinds  High winds can cause hazards to ground operations, regardless of direction.  Winds straight down the runway become x-winds during taxi operations  Position the flight controls to prevent the tail or upwind wing from being lifted.  “Climb into quartering headwind, Dive Away from quartering tailwind” Pilot Continuation Training Crosswind Operations

38  Crosswinds on Takeoff  Full aileron initially into the wind, gradually reducing as speed increases and controls become more effective  More deflection necessary at slow speeds  Maintain direction with rudder / nose wheel steering  If directional control cannot be maintained ABORT TAKEOFF! Pilot Continuation Training Crosswind Operations

39  Crosswinds on Takeoff  Continue X-wind correction throughout rotation  Transition to Crab once +ROC is established  Coordinated flight  Especially critical at low airspeeds  More control over ground track Pilot Continuation Training Crosswind Operations

40  Crosswinds on Approach / Landing  Crab on Final Approach to maintain ground track  Coordinated flight  Especially critical at low airspeeds  Passenger comfort  More control over ground track  Take a cue from the “big boys” – airliners don’t slip down final. Pilot Continuation Training Crosswind Operations

41  Crosswinds on Approach / Landing  “Kick-out” to a slip just before / during flare  Adjust correction as necessary throughout flare & touchdown, to maintain ground track and heading  FLY THE AIRPLANE  Increase aileron deflection during rollout, as controls become less effective  Maintain Direction with rudder / nose wheel steering Pilot Continuation Training Crosswind Operations

42  Emergencies  First and foremost FLY THE AIRPLANE  Many accidents have occurred because the flight crew got distracted dealing with a systems failure, and forgot to fly the plane  Many emergencies are self-induced – due to poor Checklist Discipline Pilot Continuation Training Emergencies

43  Emergencies  Know Memory Items from the Emergency Checklist  Engine Failure on ground (takeoff roll) – Memory Items  Max Braking as necessary  Exit the runway if possible Pilot Continuation Training Emergencies

44  Emergencies - Memory Items  Engine Failure after takeoff  Pitch to best glide  Find a place to land  Preferably straight ahead  DO NOT try to turn around to the runway unless you’re absolutely sure sufficient altitude exists, by a large margin. Pilot Continuation Training Emergencies

45  Emergencies – Memory Items  Engine Failure after takeoff  Mags BOTH, Throttle & Mixture FWD, Fuel Selector BOTH (on Cessna) or switch tanks  Don’t be too quick to give up on the engine  It takes almost no time to SHOVE EVERYTHING FWD  If no restart, Mags OFF, Throttle & Mixture OFF, Fuel Cutoff to secure engine and prevent post-landing fire.  MOST IMPORTANTLY Maintain Aircraft Control – Fly It ‘Till it Stops Pilot Continuation Training Emergencies

46  Emergencies – Memory Items  Engine Failure in Flight  Similar to Post-Takeoff Engine Failure, but not as urgent.  Pitch to best Glide Distance  Head toward nearest airport  Mags BOTH, Throttle & Mixture FWD, Fuel Selector BOTH (on Cessna) or switch tanks  Declare Emergency Pilot Continuation Training Emergencies

47  Emergencies – Memory Items  Engine FIRE During Start  Throttle, Mixture, Fuel Selector ALL OFF  Mags & Master – crank engine to draw fire through  If fire does not extinguish after a few seconds, secure all switches and evacuate aircraft  Engine FIRE After Start  Throttle, Mixture, Fuel Selector ALL OFF  Secure all switches and evacuate aircraft Pilot Continuation Training Emergencies

48  Emergencies – Memory Items  Engine Fire In-Flight  Mags, Throttle, Mixture, Fuel Selector ALL OFF  Pitch down to increase airspeed, to extinguish fire  Head toward nearest airport  Declare Emergency  Consult / Close-out Checklist Pilot Continuation Training Emergencies

49  Emergencies – Memory Items  Cabin / Electrical FIRE  All Electrical Switches OFF  Not mags!  Extinguish Fire & Ventilate (open vents & windows)  Consult / Close-out Checklist Pilot Continuation Training Emergencies

50  Emergencies  Many perceived “emergencies” are not actually emergencies, depending on conditions  Electrical Failure when VFR – No big deal, Fly the Plane  Door Open in Flight – Distracting, and the airplane may fly funny, but it flies  Landing Gear Fails to Extend –Not an URGENT emergency unless you’re almost out of gas.  Climb to safe altitude and troubleshoot, extend manually.  Land on the belly if necessary, but do it calmly. Pilot Continuation Training Emergencies

51  Plan and execute tasks to reduce workload during critical phases of flight  Exercise good Checklist Discipline  Remain calm during Emergencies, and prioritize tasks  Always fly the airplane.  Exercise good airmanship Pilot Continuation Training Summary

52 Questions? Always Think Safety!


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