2 Words to Know: Imperialism: Foreign policy when a stronger nation takes over a weaker nation or region and dominates its economic, political, or cultural lifeColonialism : The policy of maintaining colonies as a source of raw materials and new markets. Practiced during old and new imperialism.Raw Materials: Various materials found in nature used in manufacturing such as wood, coal, and oil.Culture: The shared beliefs, customs, practices, and social behavior of a particular nation or people
3 Words to Know: Nationalism: pride and devotion to one’s country Nationalist take pride in nation, culture, history and governmentFeel that their country is the best!
4 When?? Old Imperialism 1500-1600s Europe starts expanding to Asia, Africa and the AmericasGreat Britain takes over N. America and Spain takes over S. America
5 When?? New Imperialism 1800s 19th Century Industrial Revolution Create EmpiresIncrease Nationalism
6 What? How? Only Industrialized Countries Ships and Guns Technology NavyArmyImperialism is a foreign policyHow a country deals with other countriesCountries created empires by building colonies
7 Who?? Ten Imperialist Powers Great Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Portugal, and the United States
11 Only two countries were left!! Ethiopia and Liberia!!
12 Motives of Imperialism/ Causes EconomicMotive is $!!Raw MaterialsImports and ExportsPoliticalWorld Power!! CompetitionProtect InvestmentsEstablish own Gov.MilitaryStrategic Locations! Strengthand Security (gas stations)CulturalSuperiority“Duty to Help”ReligiousMissionariesMoral Issues
13 Imperialism: The Scramble for Africa Industrialism and ImperialismThe Industrial Revolution created a desire for natural resources.Many of these resources were not available in Europe.Since much of the American colonies became independent, European powers looked to Africa and Asia for new colonies.
14 Imperialism: The Scramble for Africa Europeans ruled their colonies with total authority, and they were not afraid to use force.Indigenous people were used as slaves in the extraction of natural resources.Europeans used the concept of Social Darwinism to justify this.Social Darwinism: The belief that people and societies evolve like nature. The most technologically advanced cultures are believed to be superior to others. Leads to racism.Social DarwinismHerbert Spencer: The Founder of Social Darwinism
15 Imperialism: The Scramble for Africa PaternalismSocial Darwinism inspired the concept of Paternalism.Paternalism stated that the societies of Asia and Africa could not run their own governments and need Europeans to take care of them.Paternalism= Parents
16 Imperialism: The Scramble for Africa Assimilation- Along with Paternalism came the concept of Assimilation. This stated that Indigenous peoples would assimilate into European culture.
17 Imperialism: The Scramble for Africa The Berlin ConferenceBy the middle of the 1800’s, it seemed clear that European powers were going to war over colonies in Africa.In order to avoid this, the leaders agreed to meet in Berlin to cut up “the African Cake.”In 1884 and 1885 Europe divided up Africa.
18 Imperialism: The Scramble for Africa The African Cake
19 Imperialism: The Scramble for Africa The Division of Africa by the Berlin Conference
20 Imperialism: The Scramble for Africa The Europeans Extracted Wealth from Africa
28 “Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun” Mao ZedongGandhi“Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun”“Victory attained by violence is a tantamount to a defeat, for it is momentary”
29 Imperialism: Southeast Asia is Divided Map showing the Division of Southeast Asia
30 Imperialism: China Resists Imperialism The Qing Dynasty Resists the BritishThe Qing did not want Western influence in China.However, Westerners (especially the British) wanted Chinese goods (i.e. tea).The Chinese forced Westerners to trade through Guangzhou (Canton) in exchange for precious metals.
31 Imperialism: China Resists Imperialism The British solution was to introduce opium as a trade item. As the Chinese population became addicted to the drug demand skyrocketed.
32 “By what right do they [British merchants]… use the poisonous drug to injure the Chinese people?... I have heard that the smoking of opium is very strictly forbidden by your country; that is because the harm caused by opium is clearly understood. Since it is not permitted to do harm to your country, then even less should you let is be passed on to the harm of the other countries.” Emperor Lin Zexu
33 Imperialism: China Resists Imperialism The Opium WarWar broke out in 1839 between the Qing and the British.It became known as the Opium War because the Qing wanted to end the trade of Opium.Industrialized Great Britain won easily and gained full trade access to China.
34 Imperialism: China Resists Imperialism The Taiping RebellionIn the 1850s, China experienced the bloodiest civil war in human history.Hong Xiuquan began a Christian religious sect known as the Taiping.He led a revolt against the Qing.The war would eventually cost 20 million lives.
35 Imperialism: China Resists Imperialism The Qing were forced to turn to the West to aid them in defeating the Taiping. They used Western weapons. This only gave Western countries more access to China.
36 Open Door Policy Sphere of Influence U.S. declared China to be open to merchants of all nationsArea in which foreign nation controlled trade and investment
37 Imperialism: China Resists Imperialism The Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists- A group in China which sought to push foreigners and their influence out of China. Westerners called them Boxers.
38 Imperialism: China Resist Imperialism The Boxer RebellionIn 1900, the Boxers surrounded the foreign section of Beijing and laid siege to it.Western armies responded by invading China and putting down the Boxers.The war became known as the Boxer Rebellion.
39 Imperialism: JapanAlthough Japan had a “Closed Country Policy,” the United States Navy forced it to open up trade in 1853.U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry
40 Imperialism: Japan The Meiji Restoration Soon after, Emperor Mutsuhito wrestled control away from the Tokugawa Shogunate.He started the Meiji Period.The Meiji sought to modernize Japan on the Western model in order to resist the West.
44 Forms of Imperialism Form Definition Example Colony Country or territory governed internally by a foreign power13 original US coloniesProtectorateCountry of territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside powerPuerto RicoSphere of InfluenceArea in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privilegesChinaEconomic ImperialismIndependent but less-developed country controlled by private business interestDole Fruit Company controlled Hawaii
45 Imperial Management Methods Indirect ControlDirect ControlLocal Government officialsLimited Self-RuleGoal was to develop future leadersGovernment institutions are based on European styles but many have local ruleForeign officials brought in to ruleNo self-ruleGoal was assimilationGovernment institutions are based only on European stylesExamples:British colonies such as Nigeria, India, BurmaUS Colonies in the PacificFrench Colonies such as Somaliland or VietnamGerman coloniesPortuguese colonies